SAJMA ALI

NEW DELHI :-राष्ट्रपति देश का संवैधानिक प्रधान होता है इसके साथ ही वह भारत का राज्य प्रमुख व प्रथम नागरिक भी होता है भारतीय संविधान के अनुच्छेद 79 के अनुसार भारत की एक संसद होगी राष्ट्रपति को संसद का अंग होता है इसके साथ ही संघ की कार्यपालिका शक्ति राष्ट्रपति में निहित होती है भारत को एक लोकतंत्रात्मक गणराज्य माना जाता है इसके साथ ही यहां संसदीय व्यवस्था को अपनाया गया है अतः राष्ट्रपति नाम मात्र की कार्यपालिका है जबकि प्रधानमंत्री का मंत्रीमंडल वास्तविक कार्यपालिका है [79. Constitution of Parliament. – There shall be a Parliament for the Union which shall consist of the President and two Houses to be known respectively as the Council of States and the House of the People.]

राष्ट्रपति से संबंधित महत्वपूर्ण तथ्य इस प्रकार है

अनुच्छेद 52 के अनुसार भारतीय संविधान के अनुच्छेद 52 में यह प्रावधान है कि भारत का 1 राष्ट्रपति होगा [52. The President of India. – There shall be a President of India]

अनुच्छेद 53 के अनुसार इसके अनुसार संघ की कार्यपालिका शक्ति राष्ट्रपति निहित होगी इसके साथ साथ तीनों सेनाओं का सर्वोच्च सेनापति होगा[

53. Executive power of the Union. – (1) The executive power of the Union shall be vested in the President and shall be exercised by him either directly or through officers subordinate to him in accordance with this Constitution.

(2) Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing provision, the supreme command of the Defence Forces of the Union shall be vested in the President and the exercise thereof shall be regulated by law.

(3) Nothing in this article shall-

(a) be deemed to transfer to the President any functions conferred by any existing law on the Government of any State or other authority; or

(b) prevent Parliament from conferring by law functions on authorities other than the President.]

अनुच्छेद 54 एवं 55के अनुसार अनुच्छेद 54 में इस बात का प्रावधान है कि राष्ट्रपति निर्वाचन में मत देने का अधिकार किसको होगा जबकि अनुच्छेद 55 के अनुसार यह कहा गया है कि निर्वाचन प्रक्रिया क्या होगी अथार्त किस आधार पर राष्ट्रपति का निर्वाचन किया जाएगा [

54. Election of President. – The President shall be elected by the members of an electoral college consisting of-

(a) the elected members of both Houses of Parliament; and

(b) the elected members of the Legislative Assemblies of the States.

[ Explanation .-In this article and in article 55, “State” includes the National Capital Territory of Delhi and the Union Territory of Pondicherry.]

55. Manner of election of President. – (1) As far as practicable, there shall be uniformity in the scale of representation of the different States at the election of the President.

(2) For the purpose of securing such uniformity among the States inter se as well as parity between the States as a whole and the Union, the number of votes which each elected member of Parliament and of the Legislative Assembly of each State is entitled to cast at such election shall be determined in the following manner:-

(a) every elected member of the Legislative Assembly of a State shall have as many votes as there are multiples of one thousand in the quotient obtained by dividing the population of the State by the total number of the elected members of the Assembly;

(b) if, after taking the said multiples of one thousand, the remainder is not less than five hundred, then the vote of each member referred to in sub-clause (a) shall be further increased by one;

(c) each elected member of either House of Parliament shall have such number of votes as may be obtained by dividing the total number of votes assigned to the members of the Legislative Assemblies of the States under sub-clauses (a) and (b) by the total number of the elected members of both Houses of Parliament, fractions exceeding one-half being counted as one and other fractions being disregarded.

(3) The election of the President shall be held in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote and the voting at such election shall be by secret ballot.

[ Explanation .-In this article, the expression “population” means the population as ascertained at the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published:

Provided that the reference in this Explanation to the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published shall, until the relevant figures for the first census taken after the year [2026][have been published, be construed as a reference to the 1971 census.]

राष्ट्रपति पद के लिए योग्यता

अनुच्छेद 58 में राष्ट्रपति की योग्यता संबंधी उपबंध है इसके
अनुसार

  • भारत का नागरिक हो
  • 35 वर्ष की आयु पूर्ण कर चुका हो
  • किसी लाभ के पद पर ना हो
  • लोकसभा सदस्य की योग्यता रखता हो

[58. Qualifications for election as President. – (1) No person shall be eligible for election as President unless he-

(a) is a citizen of India,

(b) has completed the age of thirty-five years, and

(c) is qualified for election as a member of the House of the People.

(2) A person shall not be eligible for election as President if he holds any office of profit under the Government of India or the Government of any State or under any local or other authority subject to the control of any of the said Governments.

Explanation .-For the purposes of this article, a person shall not be deemed to hold any office of profit by reason only that he is the President or Vice-President of the Union or the Governor [* * *] of any State or is a Minister either for the Union or for any State.]

निर्वाचन एवं कार्यकाल

राष्ट्रपति के निर्वाचन में लोकसभा राज्यसभा व राज्यों के विधान सभाओं के निर्वाचित सदस्य भाग लेते हैं गौरतलब है कि दिल्ली व पांडुचेरी के विधानसभाओं के निर्वाचित सदस्यों को भी राष्ट्रपति के निर्वाचन में शामिल किया जाता है यह निर्वाचन समानुपातिक प्रतिनिधित्व प्रणाली और एकल संक्रमणीय मत पद्धति द्वारा होता है

अनुच्छेद 56 के अनुसार

राष्ट्रपति का कार्यकाल शपथ ग्रहण की तारीख से 5 वर्ष तक होता है लेकिन इससे पहले यह अपना त्यागपत्र उपराष्ट्रपति को दे सकता है इसके अतिरिक्त यह संविधान का उल्लंघन करते पाया जाता है तो इस पर महाभियोग लगाकर से इसको इसकी समयावधि के पूर्व ही हटाया जा सकता है [56. Term of office of President. – (1) The President shall hold office for a term of five years from the date on which he enters upon his office:

Provided that-

(a) the President may, by writing under his hand addressed to the Vice-President, resign his office;

(b) the President may, for violation of the Constitution, be removed from office by impeachment in the manner provided in article 61;

(c) the President shall, notwithstanding the expiration of his term, continue to hold office until his successor enters upon his office.

(2) Any resignation addressed to the Vice-President under clause (a) of the proviso to clause (1) shall forthwith be communicated by him to the Speaker of the House of the People.]

महाभियोग अनुच्छेद 61 संसद का कोई भी सदन इस पर महाभियोग लगा सकता है परंतु महाभियोग लगाने के 14 दिन पहले लिखित सूचना राष्ट्रपति को देना आवश्यक है जिस पर उस सदन के स्थाई सदस्यों के हस्ताक्षर हो संसद के उस सदन जिसमें महाभियोग का प्रस्ताव पेश है 2/ 3 सदस्यों द्वारा पारित कर देना पर प्रस्ताव दूसरे सदन में भेजा जाता है यदि वहां भी यह प्रस्ताव 2/3 बहुमत से पारित हो जाता है तब राष्ट्रपति पर महाभियोग की प्रक्रिया समझी पूर्ण समझी जाएगी [61. Procedure for impeachment of the President. – (1) When a President is to be impeached for violation of the Constitution, the charge shall be preferred by either House of Parliament.

(2) No such charge shall be preferred unless-

(a) the proposal to prefer such charge is contained in a resolution which has been moved after at least fourteen days’ notice in writing signed by not less than one-fourth of the total number of members of the House has been given of their intention to move the resolution, and

(b) such resolution has been passed by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the total membership of the House.

(3) When a charge has been so preferred by either House of Parliament, the other House shall investigate the charge or cause the charge to be investigated and the President shall have the right to appear and to be represented at such investigation.

(4) If as a result of the investigation a resolution is passed by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the total membership of the House by which the charge was investigated or caused to be investigated, declaring that the charge preferred against the President has been sustained, such resolution shall have the effect of removing the President from his office as from the date on which the resolution is so passed.]

अनुच्छेद 57 के अनुसार

इसके अनुसार यदि राष्ट्रपति समय से पूर्व भी अपना त्याग पत्र देदे या किसी कारणवश उसकी मृत्यु हो जाए तो पुनः निर्वाचन द्वारा 6 माह के अंदर राष्ट्रपति का पद भर दिया जाना चाहिए [57. Eligibility for re-election. – A person who holds, or who has held, office as President shall, subject to the other provisions of this Constitution, be eligible for re-election to that office.

वेतन एवं भत्ते
राष्ट्रपति का वेतन ₹500000 प्रतिमाह निवास स्थान एवं अन्य प्रकार के भत्ते प्राप्त होते हैं

अधिकार एवं शक्तियाँ
राष्ट्रपति देश का प्रथम नागरिक होता है इसके साथ ही राष्ट्रपति को विभिन्न शक्तियां प्राप्त होती हैं जिसमें से प्रमुख कुछ इस प्रकार है

  • विधायी शक्ति राष्ट्रपति के हस्ताक्षर के बगैर कोई विधेयक कानून नहीं बन सकता अर्थात किसी विधेयक को कानून बनाने के लिए राष्ट्रपति के हस्ताक्षर आवश्यक होते हैं राष्ट्रपति को यह अधिकार प्राप्त है कि यह संसद के प्रत्येक सत्र को समाप्त कर सकता है
  • सलाहकार शक्ति अनुच्छेद 143 इसके अनुसार राष्ट्रपति व उच्चतम न्यायालय किसी भी तथ्य के बारे में बिना किसी बाधा के एक दूसरे से परामर्श ले सकते हैं [143. Power of President to consult Supreme Court. – (1) If at any time it appears to the President that a question of law or fact has arisen, or is likely to arise, which is of such a nature and of such public importance that it is expedient to obtain the opinion of the Supreme Court upon it, he may refer the question to that Court for consideration and the Court may, after such hearing as it thinks fit, report to the President its opinion thereon.(2) The President may, notwithstanding anything in [* * *] the proviso to article 131, refer a dispute of the kind mentioned in the [said proviso] to the Supreme Court for opinion and the Supreme Court shall, after such hearing as it thinks fit, report to the President its opinion thereon.]

नियुक्ति संबंधी अधिकार

राष्ट्रपति को यह अधिकार प्राप्त है कि वे विभिन्न पदों की नियुक्ति करेगा जिसमें से कुछ इस प्रकार है

  • प्रधानमंत्री की नियुक्ति
  • प्रधानमंत्री की सलाहकार मंत्री परिषद के अन्य सदस्यों की नियुक्ति
  • राज्यों के राज्पालों की नियुक्ति
  • यूपीएससी अध्यक्ष
  • उच्चतम एवं उच्च न्यायालय के मुख्य न्यायाधीश, सीएजी, महान्यायवादी की नियुक्ति

अध्यादेश जारी करना अनुच्छेद 123 जब दोनों सदन सत्र में न हों ऐसी स्थिति में ऐसी स्थिति में यदि देश में कोई तत्काल कानून लागू करने की आवश्यकता हो तो कुछ विशेष जहां तक संसद को कानून बनाने का अधिकार है राष्ट्रपति एक अध्यादेश के माध्यम से कोई कानून लागू कर सकता है [

123. Power of President to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Parliament. – (1) If at any time, except when both Houses of Parliament are in session, the President is satisfied that circumstances exist which render it necessary for him to take immediate action, he may promulgate such Ordinances as the circumstances appear to him to require.

(2) An Ordinance promulgated under this article shall have the same force and effect as an Act of Parliament, but every such Ordinance-

(a) shall be laid before both Houses of Parliament and shall cease to operate at the expiration of six weeks from the reassembly of Parliament, or, if before the expiration of that period resolutions disapproving it are passed by both Houses, upon the passing of the second of those resolutions; and

(b) may be withdrawn at any time by the President.

Explanation.-Where the Houses of Parliament are summoned to reassemble on different dates, the period of six weeks shall be reckoned from the later of those dates for the purposes of this clause.

(3) If and so far as an Ordinance under this article makes any provision which Parliament would not under this Constitution be competent to enact, it shall be void.]

आपातकालीन शक्तियां राष्ट्रपति मंत्रिपरिषद की सलाह से तीन प्रकार से आपातकाल लागू कर सकता है

  • अनुच्छेद 352 आक्रमण सशस्त्र विद्रोह के कारण आपात 
  • अनुच्छेद 356 राज्य में संवैधानिक तंत्र उत्पन्न होने के कारण आपात
  • अनुच्छेद 360 वित्तीय आपात 

न्यायिक कार्य अनुच्छेद 72 दोषी के दंड को क्षमा करने उसका परिहार एवं लघुकरण करने की शक्ति [

72. Power of President to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases. – (1) The President shall have the power to grant pardons, reprieves, respites or remissions of punishment or to suspend, remit or commute the sentence of any person convicted of any offence-

(a) in all cases where the punishment or sentence is by a Court Martial;

(b) in all cases where the punishment or sentence is for an offence against any law relating to a matter to which the executive power of the Union extends;

(c) in all cases where the sentence is a sentence of death.

(2) Nothing in sub-clause (a) of clause (1) shall affect the power conferred by law on any officer of the Armed Forces of the Union to suspend, remit or commute a sentence passed by a Court Martial.

(3) Nothing in sub-clause (c) of clause (1) shall affect the power to suspend, remit or commute a sentence of death exercisable by the Governor [* * *] of a State under any law for the time being in force.]

सदस्यों को मनोनीत करने की शक्ति
राष्ट्रपति  लोकसभा में दो व्यक्ति और राज्यसभा में 12 आंग्ल भारतीय समुदाय के व्यक्तियों को मनोनीत करता है विज्ञान समाजिक कार्यों में प्रयोग अनुभव प्राप्त होते हैं परंतु यह राष्ट्रपति के निर्वाचन में भाग नहीं ले सकते

इसके अतिरिक्त राष्ट्रपति को विशेषाधिकार भी प्राप्त होते हैं तीन प्रकार के होते हैं

  • संपूर्ण निषेधाधिकार
  • निलंबनकारी निषेधाधिकार
  • जेबी का अधिकार

इस प्रकार भारत का राष्ट्रपति गणराज्य का अध्यक्ष होता है सभी कार्यपालक कार्य राष्ट्रपति के नाम से किए जाते हैं राष्ट्रपति देश का प्रथम नागरिक होता है भारतीय राष्ट्रपति का भारतीय नागरिक होना आवश्यक है 

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