SAJMA ALI
NEW DELHI:-कानून बनाने से संबंधित प्रक्रिया को विधायी प्रक्रिया कहते हैं यह प्रक्रियांए सांसद में होती हैं भारतीय संविधान के अनुच्छेद 79 के अंतर्गत संसद का उल्लेख संविधान में मिलता है इसके साथ ही लोकसभा अनुच्छेद 81 ,राज्यसभा अनुच्छेद 80 तथा राष्ट्रपति अनुच्छेद 52 संसद के अंग होते हैं हम कह सकते हैं कि यह विधायी प्रकियाएं लोकसभा व राज्यसभा दोनों से संबंधित हैं

कोई भी विधेयक , चाहे वह पहले लोकसभा में जाए या राज्यसभा में अर्थात दोनों सदनों में पारित होने के बाद राष्ट्रपति के हस्ताक्षर के लिए भेजा जाता है इसके बाद ही वे विधेयक कानून बनता है

संसद में पेश होने वाले विधेयक दो तरह के होते हैं

  • सरकारी विधेयक
  • गैर सरकारी

सरकारी विधेयक
सरकारी विधेयक को मंत्रियों द्वारा पेश किया जाता है यह सदन द्वारा सरलता से पारित कर दिया जाता है और अगर यह सदन द्वारा अस्वीकृत कर दिया जाता है तो पूरी सरकार को इस्तीफा देना पड़ता है इसके साथ ही यदि किसी मंत्री को सदन में सरकारी विधेयक पेश करना है तो उसे 7 दिनों पहले नोटिस देना अनिवार्य है इसको सरकारी सरकारी विधेयक कहते हैं

गैर सरकारी विधेयक यह सरकार को मंत्री के अलावा कोई भी सदस्य पेश कर सकता है गैर सरकारी विधेयक पारित होने की उम्मीद की अपेक्षा कम हो जाता है तो इस बात का सरकार पर कोई प्रभाव नहीं पड़ता है इसके साथ ही यदि किसी सदस्यों को यह विधेयक पेश करना पड़ता है तो उसे एक माह पहले नोटिस देना अनिवार्य है

संसद में प्रस्तुत विधेयक को नियमित चार श्रेणियों में बांटा गया है

  • साधारण विधेयक
  • धन विधेयक
  • वित्त विधेयक
  • संविधान संशोधन विधेयक

साधारण विधेयक
साधारण विधेयक की चर्चा संविधान के अनुच्छेद 107 में की गई है इस विधेयक को संसद के किसी भी सदन से प्रस्तुत किया जा सकता है इसके लिए संयुक्त अधिवेशन भी बुलाया जा सकता है साधारण विधेयक के लिए साधारण बहुमत की आवश्यकता होती है और राष्ट्रपति इस विधेयक को पुनर्विचार के लिए भेज सकता है

नोट संयुक्त अधिवेशन की अध्यक्षता लोकसभा अध्यक्ष द्वारा की जाती है परंतु अधिवेशन को बुलाने की जिम्मेदारी राष्ट्रपति को होती है यदि किसी कारणवश लोकसभा अध्यक्ष उपस्थित नहीं है तो ऐसी स्थिति में संयुक्त अधिवेशन की अध्यक्षता लोकसभा का उपाध्यक्ष करता है और यदि वह भी उपस्थित नहीं है तो अध्यक्षता राज्यसभा का उपसभापति करता है

धन विधेयक

धन विधेयक का उल्लेख संविधान के अनुच्छेद 110 में मिलता है हम सभी जानते हैं कि भारत सरकार की एक संचित निधि होती है यदि उस संचित निधि से कोई धन निकालना है या जमा करना है उधार लाना या उधार देना या कोई नया कर लगाना या किसी कर को समाप्त करना है तो इससे संबंधित विधेयक धन विधेयक कहते हैं धन विधेयक को राष्ट्रपति की सहमति से लोकसभा में प्रस्तुत किए जाते हैं जिसे राज्यसभा अधिकतम 14 दिन तक की रोक सकती है इसके अतिरिक्त कोई विधेयक धन विधेयक है या नहीं इसका निर्णय लोकसभा अध्यक्ष लेता है और गौरतलब है कि यदि यह विधेयक लोकसभा में पारित हो जाता है तो सरकार मंत्रिमंडल को त्यागपत्र देना पड़ता है

वित्त विधेयक

इसका उल्लेख संविधान के अनुच्छेद 117 में मिलता है इसके अनुसार दूसरे प्रकार के विधेयक अर्थात धन विधेयक से भिन्न वित्त विधेयक संसद के किसी भी सदन में पेश किए जा सकते हैं और इसके लिए भी साधारण बहुमत की आवश्यकता होती है

दो प्रकार के होते हैं एक में अनुच्छेद 110 से जुड़े विषय एवं उससे बाहर के विषय भी शामिल होते हैं विदेशों में भारत की संचित निधि पर खर्च से जुड़े होते हैं लेकिन अनुच्छेद 1 से संबंधित विषय शामिल नहीं होते प्रतीत होता है कि नहीं होता है

संविधान संशोधन विधेयक
इस विधेयक का उल्लेख संविधान के अनुच्छेद 368 के अंतर्गत मिलता है इसके अनुसार यदि संविधान के किसी प्रावधान में परिवर्तन करना है या किसी नए प्रावधानों को शामिल करना है या किसी प्रावधान को समाप्त करना है तो इन तीनों दशाओं से संबंधित विधेयक को संविधान संशोधन विधेयक कहते हैं इस विधेयक को संसद के किसी भी सदन में प्रस्तुत किया जा सकता है गौरतलब है कि यह मात्र एकऐसा विधेयक होता है जिसके लिए विशेष बहुमत की आवश्यकता होती है इसके साथ ही महत्वपूर्ण है कि यदि कोई सदन इसे अस्वीकृत कर देता है तो यह विधेयक पूर्णता समाप्त हो जाता है|

संविधान के अनुसार, लेख में दिये गये अनुच्छेद का संवैधानिक रूप:-

लोकसभा अनुच्छेद 81

81. Composition of the House of the People. – (1) [Subject to the provisions of article 331] [* * *], the House of the People shall consist of-

(a) not more than [five hundred and thirty members] chosen by direct election from territorial constituencies in the States, and

(b) not more than [twenty members] to represent the Union territories, chosen in such manner as Parliament may by law provide.

(2) For the purposes of sub-clause (a) of clause (1),-

(a) there shall be allotted to each State a number of seats in the House of the People in such manner that the ratio between that number and the population of the State is, so far as practicable, the same for all States; and

(b) each State shall be divided into territorial constituencies in such manner that the ratio between the population of each constituency and number of seats allotted to it is, so far as practicable, the same throughout the State:

[Provided that the provisions of sub-clause (a) of this clause shall not be applicable for the purpose of allotment of seats in the House of the People to any State so long as the population of that State does not exceed six millions.]

(3) In this article, the expression “population” means the population as ascertained at the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published:

[Provided that the reference in this clause to the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published shall, until the relevant figures for the first census taken after the year [2026] [have been published,] ]

[be construed,-

(i) for the purposes of sub-clause (a) of clause (2) and the proviso to that clause, as a reference to the 1971 census; and

(ii) for the purposes of sub-clause (b) of clause (2), as a reference to the [2001][census.

राज्यसभा अनुच्छेद 80

80. Composition of the Council of States. – (1) [[* * *] [The Council of States] shall consist of-

(a) twelve members to be nominated by the President in accordance with the provisions of clause (3); and

(b) not more than two hundred and thirty-eight representatives of the States [and of the Union territories].

(2) The allocation of seats in the Council of States to be filled by representatives of the States [and of the Union territories] shall be in accordance with the provisions in that behalf contained in the Fourth Schedule.

(3) The members to be nominated by the President under sub-clause (a) of clause (1) shall consist of persons having special knowledge or practical experience in respect of such matters as the following, namely:-

Literature, science, art and social service.

(4) The representatives of each State [* * *] in the Council of States shall be elected by the elected members of the Legislative Assembly of the State in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote.

(5) The representatives of the [Union territories] in the Council of States shall be chosen in such manner as Parliament may by law prescribe.

राष्ट्रपति अनुच्छेद 52

52. The President of India. – There shall be a President of India.

  • साधारण विधेयक

107. Provisions as to introduction and passing of Bills. – (1) Subject to the provisions of articles 109 and 117 with respect to Money Bills and other financial Bills, a Bill may originate in either House of Parliament.

(2) Subject to the provisions of articles 108 and 109, a Bill shall not be deemed to have been passed by the Houses of Parliament unless it has been agreed to by both Houses, either without amendment or with such amendments only as are agreed by both Houses.

(3) A Bill pending in Parliament shall not lapse by reason of the prorogation of the Houses.

(4) A Bill pending in the Council of States which has not been passed by the House of the People shall not lapse on a dissolution of the House of the People.

(5) A Bill which is pending in the House of the People, or which having been passed by the House of the People is pending

धन विधेयक 110. Definition of “Money Bills”.-(1) For the purposes of this Chapter, a Bill shall be deemed to be a Money Bill if it contains only provisions dealing with all or any of the following matters, namely:-

(a) the imposition, abolition, remission, alteration or regulation of any tax;

(b) the regulation of the borrowing of money or the giving of any guarantee by the Government of India, or the amendment of the law with respect to any financial obligations undertaken or to be undertaken by the Government of India;

(c) the custody of the Consolidated Fund or the Contingency Fund of India, the payment of moneys into or the withdrawal of moneys from any such Fund;

(d) the appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of India;

(e) the declaring of any expenditure to be expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of India or the increasing of the amount of any such expenditure;

(f) the receipt of money on account of the Consolidated Fund of India or the public account of India or the custody or issue of such money or the audit of the accounts of the Union or of a State; or

(g) any matter incidental to any of the matters specified in sub-clauses (a) to (f).

(2) A Bill shall not be deemed to be a Money Bill by reason only that it provides for the imposition of fines or other pecuniary penalties, or for the demand or payment of fees for licences or fees for services rendered, or by reason that it provides for the imposition, abolition, remission, alteration or regulation of any tax by any local authority or body for local purposes.

(3) If any question arises whether a Bill is a Money Bill or not, the decision of the Speaker of the House of the People thereon shall be final.

(4) There shall be endorsed on every Money Bill when it is transmitted to the Council of States under article 109, and when it is presented to the President for assent under article 111, the certificate of the Speaker of the House of the People signed by him that it is a Money Bill.

वित्त विधेयक (117. Special provisions as to financial Bills. )– (1) A Bill or amendment making provision for any of the matters specified in sub-clauses (a) to (f) of clause (1) of article 110 shall not be introduced or moved except on the recommendation of the President and a Bill making such provision shall not be introduced in the Council of States:

Provided that no recommendation shall be required under this clause for the moving of an amendment making provision for the reduction or abolition of any tax.

(2) A Bill or amendment shall not be deemed to make provision for any of the matters aforesaid by reason only that it provides for the imposition of fines or other pecuniary penalties, or for the demand or payment of fees for licences or fees for services rendered, or by reason that it provides for the imposition, abolition, remission, alteration or regulation of any tax by any local authority or body for local purposes.

(3) A Bill which, if enacted and brought into operation, would involve expenditure from the Consolidated Fund of India shall not be passed by either House of Parliament unless the President has recommended to that House the consideration of the Bill.

संविधान संशोधन विधेयक (AMENDMENT OF THE CONSTITUTION)

368. [Power of Parliament to amend the Constitution and procedure therefor]. – [(1) Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, Parliament may in exercise of its constituent power amend by way of addition, variation or repeal any provision of this Constitution in accordance with the procedure laid down in this article.]

[(2)] An amendment of this Constitution may be initiated only by the introduction of a Bill for the purpose in either House of Parliament, and when the Bill is passed in each House by a majority of the total membership of that House and by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the members of that House present and voting, [it shall be presented to the President who shall give his assent to the Bill and thereupon,] the Constitution shall stand amended in accordance with the terms of the Bill:

Provided that if such amendment seeks to make any change in-

(a) article 54, article 55, article 73, [article 162 or article 241, or article 246A]

(b) Chapter IV of Part V, Chapter V of Part VI, or Chapter I of Part XI, or

(c) any of the Lists in the Seventh Schedule, or

(d) the representation of States in Parliament, or

(e) the provisions of this article, the amendment shall also require to be ratified by the Legislatures of not less than one-half of the States [* * *] by resolution to that effect passed by those Legislatures before the Bill making provision for such amendment is presented to the President for assent.

[(3) Nothing in article 13 shall apply to any amendment made under this article.]

[(4) No amendment of this Constitution (including the provisions of Part III) made or purporting to have been made under this article [whether before or after the commencement of section 55 of the Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976 shall be called in question in any Court on any ground.

(5) For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that there shall be no limitation whatever on the constituent power of Parliament to amend by way of addition, variation or repeal the provisions of this Constitution under this article.]

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