NEW DELHI:-सुप्रीम कोर्ट ,भारत में सबसे पहले 1773 के रेगुलेटिंग एक्ट के द्वारा कलकत्ता में उच्चतम न्यायालय की स्थापना की गई जिसका क्षेत्र अधिकार बिहार एवं उड़ीसा तक विस्तृत था इसके साथ ही इससे बाहर के मामलों में दोनों पक्षों की सहमति और कलकत्त उच्चतम न्यायालय के अनुमति से सुनवाई हो सकती थी
संपूर्ण भारत के लिए एक संघीय न्यायालय के गठन का प्रावधान भारत सरकार अधिनियम 1935 के द्वारा किया गया इस अधिनियम का लगभग 2/ 3 भाग हमारे संविधान में शामिल किया गया है अर्थात भारत सरकार अधिनियम के 2/ 3 प्रावधानों को हमारे संविधान में जगह दी गई है
आजादी के बाद भारतीय संविधान के द्वारा भारत में 3 स्तरीय एकीकृत न्यायालय के गठन का प्रावधान किया गया एवं संविधान लागू होने के बाद 28 जनवरी 1950 को भारत में नई दिल्ली उच्चतम न्यायालय की स्थापना की गई
भारतीय संविधान के अनुच्छेद 124 उच्चतम न्यायालय का उल्लेख मिलता है इसके अनुसार भारत में एक सुप्रीम कोर्ट होगा एवं इसके गठन का प्रावधान भी इसी अनुच्छेद के अंतर्गत किया गया है
सुप्रीम कोर्ट के न्यायाधीशों की संख्या को राष्ट्रपति द्वारा बढ़ाया जा सकता है जबकि न्यायाधीशों की संख्या बढ़ाने की शक्ति ससद के पास होती है
वर्तमान में सर्वोच्च न्यायालय में मुख्य न्यायाधीश सहित कुल 34 न्यायाधीश हैं
उच्चतम न्यायालय के न्यायधीश के लिए योग्यताएं
- भारत का नागरिक हो
- एक या अधिक उच्च न्यायालयों में लगातार 5 वर्ष तक न्यायाधीश रहा हो या एक या अधिक उच्च न्यायालय में लगा था 10 वर्ष तक अधिवक्ता रहा हो या राष्ट्रपति की राय में पारंगत विधिवेत्ता हो
उच्चतम न्यायालय के न्यायाधीशों की नियुक्ति राष्ट्रपति के द्वारा की जाती है वेतन ₹280000 मुख्य न्यायाधीश का होता है इसके लिए न्यूनतम आयु सीमा निर्धारित नहीं की गई है एक बार नियुक्ति होने के बाद इनके अवकाश ग्रहण करने की आयु सीमा 65 वर्ष है परन्तु इससे पहले ये राष्ट्पति को त्याग पत्र दे सकता है
साबित कदाचार या असमर्थता के आधार पर संसद के दोनों सदनों के 2 – 3 बहुमत से पारित प्रस्ताव के आधार पर राष्ट्रपति द्वारा हटाया जा सकता है
उच्चतम न्यायालय का क्षेत्राधिकार
इसके प्रमुख क्षेत्राधिकार है
- प्रारंभिक क्षेत्राधिकार अनुच्छेद 131
- अपीलीय क्षेत्राधिकार अनुच्छेद (32-34 )
- अभिलेख अधिकार (129)
- सलाहकारी क्षेत्राधिकार अनुच्छेद अनुच्छेद 143
अनुच्छेद 136 के अनुसार सुप्रीम कोर्ट सैंन्य न्यायालय के निर्णय को छोड़कर अन्य किसी भी न्यायालय के निर्णय के विरुद्ध उच्चतम न्यायालय में विशेष अपील की इजाजत दी जा सकती है
अनुच्छेद 137 के अनुसार ( न्यायिक पुनर्विलोकन)
इसके अनुसार उच्चतम न्यायालय वाद में आने वाले मामलों( पश्चातवर्ती) में अपने पूर्व निर्णय को रद्द या बदल सकता है
अनुच्छेद 139 के अनुसार-
यदि कोई भी मूल अधिकार का यदि उल्लंघन होता है तो सुप्रीम कोर्ट अनुच्छेद 32 के तहत पांच प्रकार की रिट जारी कर सकता है जो निम्नलिखित है
- बंदी प्रत्यक्षीकरण रिट
- परमादेश रिट प्रतिषेध रिट
- अधिकार पृच्छा लेख
- उत्प्रेषण रिट
अत: भारत की न्यायिक व्यवस्था इकहरी और एकीकृत है जिसके सर्वोच्च शिखर पर भारत का सुप्रीम कोर्ट है
सर्वोच्च न्यायालय को देश के सभी न्याय पंचायत आदि न्यायिक अधीक्षक की शक्ति प्राप्त है यह उच्च न्यायालय में लंबित मामलों को मंगवा सकता है उसका निपटारा कर सकता है तथा एक उच्च न्यायालय से दूसरे में भी स्थान्तरित कर सकता है इसके अलावा राज्यों के बीच के विवादों मौलिक अधिकारों और मानव अधिकारों के गंभीर उल्लंघन से संबंधित याचिकाओं को आमतौर पर उच्चतम न्यायालय के समक्ष सीधे रखा जा सकता है
हाईकोर्ट [उच्च न्यायालय]
संविधान के अनुच्छेद 214 के अनुसार प्रत्येक राज्य के लिए एक उच्च न्यायालय होगा लेकिन अनुच्छेद के 231 अनुसार संसद विधि द्वारा दो या दो से अधिक राज्यों और किसी संघ राज्य क्षेत्र के लिए एक ही उच्च न्यायालय स्थापित कर सकती है भारत में उच्च न्यायालयों का सर्वप्रथम गठन 1862 में हुआ जहां
- कलकत्ता, उच्च न्यायालय
- मद्रास, उच्च न्यायालय
- मुंबई उच्च न्यायालय
इलाहाबाद उच्च न्यायालय 1866 में स्थापित हुआ
केवल दिल्ली एक ऐसा संघ राज्य क्षेत्र है जिसका अपना उच्च न्यायालय 1966 गठित हुआ है
संसद किसी भी उच्च न्यायालय के न्यायिक क्षेत्र का विस्तार भी कर सकता है इसके साथ ही क्षेत्र को उसके क्षेत्र से बाहर भी कर सकता है
प्रत्येक राज्य का मुख्य न्यायाधीश एवं उतने अन्य न्यायाधीशों से मिलकर बनेगा जैसा कि समय समय पर राष्ट्रपति नियुक्त करना जरूरी समझे
- भारत का नागरिक हो
- कम से कम 10 वर्ष तक न्यायिक पद पर धारण कर चुका हो
या किसी उच्च न्यायालय में एक या एक से अधिक उच्च न्यायालय में लगातार 10 वर्ष तक अधिवक्ता रहा हो
न्यायाधीशों की नियुक्ति राष्ट्रपति करता हैइसके लिए यह राज्यपाल, भारत के मुख्य न्यायाधीश व सुप्रीम कोर्ट के 2 वरिष्ठ न्यायाधीश के परामर्श से करता है
उच्च न्यायालय के न्यायाधीशों को उस राज्य ( जिसमें उच्च न्यायालय स्थित है)का राज्यपाल उस पद की शपथ दिलाता है
कार्यकाल अवकाश ग्रहण करने की अधिकतम उम्र 62 वर्ष निश्चित की गई है जबकि मुख्य न्यायाधीश का कार्यकाल 65 वर्ष होता है इसके अलावा मुख्य न्यायाधीश अन्य न्यायाधीश राष्ट्पति को अपना त्याग पत्र दे सकते हैं
उच्च न्यायालय एक अभिलेख न्यायालय होता है उसके निर्णय आधिकारिक माने जाते हैं तथा उनके आधार पर निचली अदालतें अपना निर्णय सुनती है
उच्च न्यायालय के मुख्य न्यायाधीश का वेतन 90000 प्रतिमाह होता है एवं अन्य न्यायाधीशों का वेतन औसतन 80000 प्रतिमाह होता है
उच्च न्यायालय के क्षेत्राधिकार से संबंधित अनुच्छेद
- प्रारंभिक क्षेत्राधिकार अनुच्छेद 226
- अपीलीय क्षेत्राधिकार अनुच्छेद 228
- उच्च न्यायालयों में मुकदमों का हस्तांतरण
- प्रशसकीय अधिकार
- न्यायिक पुनर्विलोकन
- अधीक्षक सम्बंधित अधिकार अनुच्छेद 227
RELATED ARTICLE ACCORDING TO CONSTITUTION
124. Establishment and constitution of Supreme Court. – (1) There shall be a Supreme Court of India consisting of a Chief Justice of India and, until Parliament by law prescribes a larger number, of not more than [seven] other Judges.
(2) Every Judge of the Supreme Court shall be appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal [on the recommendation of the National Judicial Appointments Commission referred to in article 124A] and shall hold office until he attains the age of sixty-five years:
[* * *]
(a) a Judge may, by writing under his hand addressed to the President, resign his office:
(b) a Judge may be removed from his office in the manner provided in clause (4).
[(2-A) The age of a Judge of the Supreme Court shall be determined by such authority and in such manner as Parliament may by law provide.]
(3) A person shall not be qualified for appointment as a Judge of the Supreme Court unless he is a citizen of India and-
(a) has been for at least five years a Judge of a High Court or of two or more such Courts in succession; or
(b) has been for at least ten years an advocate of a High Court or of two or more such Courts in succession; or
(c) is, in the opinion of the President, a distinguished jurist.
Explanation I .-In this clause “High Court” means a High Court which exercises, or which at any time before the commencement of this Constitution exercised, jurisdiction in any part of the territory of India.
Explanation II .-In computing for the purpose of this clause the period during which a person has been an advocate, any period during which a person has held judicial office not inferior to that of a district Judge after he became an advocate shall be included.
(4) A Judge of the Supreme Court shall not be removed from his office except by an order of the President passed after an address by each House of Parliament supported by a majority of the total membership of that House and by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the members of the House present and voting has been presented to the President in the same session for such removal on the ground of proved misbehaviour or incapacity.
(5) Parliament may by law regulate the procedure for the presentation of an address and for the investigation and proof of the misbehaviour or incapacity of a Judge under clause (4).
(6) Every person appointed to be a Judge of the Supreme Court shall, before he enters upon his office, make and subscribe before the President, or some person appointed in that behalf by him, an oath or affirmation according to the form set out for the purpose in the Third Schedule.
(7) No person who has held office as a Judge of the Supreme Court shall plead or act in any Court or before any authority within the territory of India.
129. Supreme Court to be a Court of record. – The Supreme Court shall be a Court of record and shall have all the powers of such a Court including the power to punish for contempt of itself.
130. Seat of Supreme Court. – The Supreme Court shall sit in Delhi or in such other place or places, as the Chief Justice of India may, with the approval of the President, from time to time, appoint.
131. Original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court. – Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the Supreme Court shall, to the exclusion of any other Court, have original jurisdiction in any dispute-
(a) between the Government of India and one or more States; or
(b) between the Government of India and any State or States on one side and one or more other States on the other; or
(c) between two or more States, if and in so far as the dispute involves any question (whether of law or fact) on which the existence or extent of a legal right depends:
[Provided that the said jurisdiction shall not extend to a dispute arising out of any treaty, agreement, covenant, engagement, sanad or other similar instrument which, having been entered into or executed before the commencement of this Constitution, continues in operation after such commencement, or which provides that the said jurisdiction shall not extend to such a dispute.]
132. Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in appeals from High Courts in certain cases. – (1) An appeal shall lie to the Supreme Court from any judgment, decree or final order of a High Court in the territory of India, whether in a civil, criminal or other proceeding, [if the High Court certifies under article 134-A] that the case involves a substantial question of law as to the interpretation of this Constitution.
[* * *]
(3) Where such a certificate is given, [* * *] any party in the case may appeal to the Supreme Court on the ground that any such question as aforesaid has been wrongly decided [* * *] .
Explanation .-For the purposes of this article, the expression “final order” includes an order deciding an issue which, if decided in favour of the appellant, would be sufficient for the final disposal of the case.
133. Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in appeals from High Courts in regard to civil matters. – [(1) An appeal shall lie to the Supreme Court from any judgment, decree or final order in a civil proceeding of a High Court in the territory of India [if the High Court certifies under article 134-A-]
[(a) that the case involves a substantial question of law of general importance; and
(b) that in the opinion of the High Court the said question needs to be decided by the Supreme Court.]
(2) Notwithstanding anything in article 132, any party appealing to the Supreme Court under clause (1) may urge as one of the grounds in such appeal that a substantial question of law as to the interpretation of this Constitution has been wrongly decided.
(3) Notwithstanding anything in this article, no appeal shall, unless Parliament by law otherwise provides, lie to the Supreme Court from the judgment, decree or final order of one Judge of a High Court.
134. Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in regard to criminal matters. – (1) An appeal shall lie to the Supreme Court from any judgment, final order or sentence in a criminal proceeding of a High Court in the territory of India if the High Court-
(a) has on appeal reversed an order of acquittal of an accused person and sentenced him to death; or
(b) has withdrawn for trial before itself any case from any Court subordinate to its authority and has in such trial convicted the accused person and sentenced him to death; or
[(c) certifies under article 134-A] that the case is a fit one for appeal to the Supreme Court:
Provided that an appeal under sub-clause (c) shall lie subject to such provisions as may be made in that behalf under clause (1) of article 145 and to such conditions as the High Court may establish or require.
(2) Parliament may by law confer on the Supreme Court any further powers to entertain and hear appeals from any Judgement, final order or sentence in a criminal proceeding of a High Court in the territory of India subject to such conditions and limitations as may be specified in such law.
[134A. Certificate for appeal to the Supreme Court. – Every High Court, passing or making a Judgement, decree, final order, or sentence, referred to in clause (1) of article 132 or clause (1) of article 133, or clause (1) of article 134,-
(a) may, if it deems fit so to do, on its own motion; and
(b) shall, if an oral application is made, by or on behalf of the party aggrieved, immediately after the passing or making of such Judgement, decree, final order or sentence, determine, as soon as may be after such passing or making, the question whether a certificate of the nature referred to in clause (1) of article 132, or clause (1) of article 133 or, as the case may be, sub-clause (c) of clause (1) of article 134, may be given in respect of that case.]
143. Power of President to consult Supreme Court. – (1) If at any time it appears to the President that a question of law or fact has arisen, or is likely to arise, which is of such a nature and of such public importance that it is expedient to obtain the opinion of the Supreme Court upon it, he may refer the question to that Court for consideration and the Court may, after such hearing as it thinks fit, report to the President its opinion thereon.
(2) The President may, notwithstanding anything in [* * *] the proviso to article 131, refer a dispute of the kind mentioned in the [said proviso] to the Supreme Court for opinion and the Supreme Court shall, after such hearing as it thinks fit, report to the President its opinion thereon.
214. High Courts for States. – [* * *] There shall be a High Court for each State.
[* * *]
215. High Courts to be Courts of record. – Every High Court shall be a Court of record and shall have all the powers of such a Court including the power to punish for contempt of itself.
216. Constitution of High Courts. – Every High Court shall consist of a Chief Justice and such other Judges as the President may from time to time deem it necessary to appoint.
[* * *]
217. Appointment and conditions of the office of a Judge of a High Court. – (1) Every Judge of a High Court shall be appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal [on the recommendation of the National Judicial Appointments Commission referred to in article 124A], and [shall hold office, in the case of an additional or acting Judge, as provided in article 224, and in any other case, until he attains the age of [sixty-two years]:
(a) a Judge may, by writing under his hand addressed to the President, resign his office;
(b) a Judge may be removed from his office by the President in the manner provided in clause (4) of article 124 for the removal of a Judge of the Supreme Court;
(c) the office of a Judge shall be vacated by his being appointed by the President to be a Judge of the Supreme Court or by his being transferred by the President to any other High Court within the territory of India.
(2) A person shall not be qualified for appointment as a Judge of a High Court unless he is a citizen of India and-
(a) has for at least ten years held a judicial office in the territory of India; or
(b) has for at least ten years been an advocate of a High Court [* * *] or of two or more such Courts in succession; [*]
[* * *]
Explanation.-For the purposes of this clause-
[(a) in computing the period during which a person has held judicial office in the territory of India, there shall be included any period, after he has held any judicial office, during which the person has been an advocate of a High Court or has held the office of a member of a tribunal or any post, under the Union or a State, requiring special knowledge of law;]
[(aa)] in computing the period during which a person has been an advocate of a High Court, there shall be included any period during which the person [has held judicial office or the office of a member of a tribunal or any post, under the Union or a State, requiring special knowledge of law] after he became an advocate;
(b) in computing the period during which a person has held judicial office in the territory of India or been an advocate of a High Court, there shall be included any period before the commencement of this Constitution during which he has held judicial office in any area which was comprised before the fifteenth day of August, 1947, within India as defined by the Government of India Act, 1935, or has been an advocate of any High Court in any such area, as the case may be.
[(3) If any question arises as to the age of a Judge of a High Court, the question shall be decided by the President after consultation with the Chief Justice of India and the decision of the President shall be final.]
[226. Power of High Courts to issue certain writs. – (1) Notwithstanding anything in article 32 [* * *], [every High Court shall have powers, throughout the territories in relation to which it exercises jurisdiction, to issue to any person or authority, including in appropriate cases, any Government, within those territories directions, orders or [writs, including writs in the nature of habeas corpus, mandamus,prohibition, quo warranto and certiorari , or any of them,][for the enforcement of any of the rights conferred by Part III and for any other purpose.]
(2) The power conferred by clause (1) to issue directions, orders or writs to any Government, authority or person may also be exercised by any High Court exercising jurisdiction in relation to the territories within which the cause of action, wholly or in part, arises for the exercise of such power, notwithstanding that the seat of such Government or authority or the residence of such person is not within those territories.
[(3) Where any party against whom an interim order, whether by way of injunction or stay or in any other manner, is made on, or in any proceedings relating to, a petition under clause (1), without-
(a) furnishing to such party copies of such petition and all documents in support of the plea for such interim order; and
(b) giving such party an opportunity of being heard, makes an application to the High Court for the vacation of such order and furnishes a copy of such application to the party in whose favour such order has been made or the counsel of such party, the High Court shall dispose of the application within a period of two weeks from the date on which it is received or from the date on which the copy of such application is so furnished, whichever is later, or where the High Court is closed on the last day of that period, before the expiry of the next day afterwards on which the High Court is open; and if the application is not so disposed of, the interim order shall, on the expiry of that period, or, as the case may be, the expiry of the said next day, stand vacated.]
[(4)] The power conferred on a High Court by this article shall not be in derogation of the power conferred on the Supreme Court by clause (2) of article 32.
[226A. Constitutional validity of Central laws not to be considered in proceedings under article 226. – [ Repealed by the Constitution (Forty-third Amendment) Act, 1977, section 8 (w.e.f.13-4-1978).]]
227. Power of superintendence over all Courts by the High Court.- [(1) Every High Court shall have superintendence over all Courts and tribunals throughout the territories in relation to which it exercises jurisdiction.]
(2) Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing provisions, the High Court may-
(a) call for returns from such Courts;
(b) make and issue general rules and prescribe forms for regulating the practice and proceedings of such Courts; and
(c) prescribe forms in which books, entries and accounts shall be kept by the officers of any such Courts.
(3) The High Court may also settle tables of fees to be allowed to the sheriff and all clerks and officers of such Courts and to attorneys, advocates and pleaders practising therein:
Provided that any rules made, forms prescribed or tables settled under clause (2) or clause (3) shall not be inconsistent with the provision of any law for the time being in force, and shall require the previous approval of the Governor.
(4) Nothing in this article shall be deemed to confer on a High Court powers of superintendence over any Court or tribunal constituted by or under any law relating to the Armed Forces.
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228. Transfer of certain cases to High Court. – If the High Court is satisfied that a case pending in a Court subordinate to it involves a substantial question of law as to the interpretation of this Constitution the determination of which is necessary for the disposal of the case, [it shall withdraw the case and [* * *][may-]
(a) either dispose of the case itself, or
(b) determine the said question of law and return the case to the Court from which the case has been so withdrawn together with a copy of its judgment on such question, and the said Court shall on receipt thereof proceed to dispose of the case in conformity with such judgment.