• 1. Short title, extent and commencement.
    • 2. Definitions.
    • 3. Construction of references.
    • 4. Trial of offences under the Indian Penal Code and other laws.
    • 5. Saving.
    • 6. Classes of Criminal Courts.
    • 7. Territorial divisions.
    • 8. Metropolitan areas.
    • 9. Court of Session.
    • 10. Subordination of Assistant Sessions Judges.
    • 11. Courts of Judicial Magistrates.
    • 12. Chief Judicial Magistrate and Additional Chief Judicial Magistrate, etc.
    • 13. Special Judicial Magistrates.
    • 14. Local Jurisdiction of Judicial Magistrates.
    • 15. Subordination of Judicial Magistrates.
    • 16. Courts of Metropolitan Magistrates.
    • 17. Chief Metropolitan Magistrate and Additional Chief Metropolitan Magistrate.
    • 18. Special Metropolitan Magistrate.
    • 19. Subordination of Metropolitan Magistrates.
    • 20. Executive Magistrates.
    • 21. Special Executive Magistrates.
    • 22. Local jurisdiction of Executive Magistrates.
    • 23. Subordination of Executive Magistrates.
    • 24. Public Prosecutors.
    • 25. Assistant Public Prosecutors.
    • 25A. Directorate of Prosecution.
    • 26. Courts by which offences are triable.
    • 27. Jurisdiction in the case of juveniles.
    • 28. Sentences which High Courts and Sessions Judges may pass.
    • 29. Sentences which Magistrates may pass.
    • 30. Sentence of imprisonment in default of fine.
    • 31. Sentence in cases of conviction of several offences at one trial.
    • 32. Mode of conferring powers.
    • 33. Powers of officers appointed.
    • 34. Withdrawal of powers.
    • 35. Powers of Judges and Magistrates exercisable by their successors inoffice.
    • 36. Powers of superior officers of police.
    • 37. Public when to assist Magistrates and police.
    • 38. Aid to person, other than police officer, executing warrant.
    • 39. Public to give information of certain offences.
    • 40. Duty of officers employed in connection with the affairs of a village to make certain report.
    • 41. When police may arrest without warrant.
    • 41A. Notice of appearance before police officer
    • 41B. Procedure of arrest and duties of officer making arrest.
    • 41C. Control room at district.
    • 41D. Right of arrested person to meet an advocate of his choice during interrogation
    • 42. Arrest on refusal to give name and residence.
    • 43. Arrest by private person and procedure on such arrest.
    • 44. Arrest by Magistrate.
    • 45. Protection of members of the Armed Forces from arrest.
    • 46. Arrest how made.
    • 47. Search of place entered by person sought to be arrested.
    • 48. Pursuit of offenders into other jurisdictions.
    • 49. No unnecessary restraint.
    • 50. Person arrested to be informed of grounds of arrest and of right to bail.
    • 50A. Obligation of person making arrest to inform about the arrest, etc., to a nominated person.
    • 51. Search of arrested person.
    • 52. Power to seize offensive weapons.
    • 53. Examination of accused by medical practitioner at the request of police officer.
    • 53A. Examination of person accused of rape by medical practitioner.
    • 54. Examination of arrested person by medical officer.
    • 54A. Identification of person arrested
    • 55. Procedure when police officer deputes subordinate to arrest without warrant.
    • 55A. Health and safety of arrested person
    • 56. Person arrested to be taken before Magistrate or officerincharge of police station.
    • 57. Person arrested not to be detained more than twentyfour hours.
    • 58. Police to report apprehensions.
    • 59. Discharge of person apprehended.
    • 60. Power, on escape, to pursue and retake.
    • 60A. Arrest to be made strictly according to the Code
    • 61. Forms of summons.
    • 62. Summons how served.
    • 63. Service of summons on corporate bodies and societies.
    • 64. Service when persons summoned cannot be found.
    • 65. Procedure when service cannot be effected as before provided.
    • 66. Service on Government Servant.
    • 67. Service of summons outside local limits.
    • 68. Proof of service in such cases and when serving officer not present.
    • 69. Service of summons on witness by post.
    • 70. Form of warrant of arrest and duration.
    • 71. Power to direct security to be taken.
    • 72. Warrant to whom directed.
    • 73. Warrant may be directed to any person.
    • 74. Warrant directed to police officer.
    • 75. Notification of substance of warrant.
    • 76. Person arrested to be brought before Court without delay.
    • 77. Where warrant may be executed.
    • 78. Warrant forwarded for execution outside jurisdiction.
    • 79. Warrant directed to police officer for execution outside jurisdiction.
    • 80. Procedure of arrest of person against whom warrant issued.
    • 81. Procedure by Magistrate before whom such person arrested is brought.
    • 82. Proclamation for person absconding.
    • 83. Attachment of property of person absconding.
    • 84. Claims and objections to attachment.
    • 85. Release, sale and restoration of attached property.
    • 86. Appeal from order rejecting application for restoration of attached property.
    • 87. Issue of warrant in lieu of, or in addition to, summons.
    • 88. Power to take bond for appearance.
    • 89. Arrest on breach of bond for appearance.
    • 90. Provisions of this Chapter generally applicable to summonses and warrants of arrest.
    • 91. Summons to produce document or other thing.
    • 92. Procedure as to letters and telegrams.
    • 93. When searchwarrant may be issued.
    • 94. Search of place suspected to contain stolen property, forged documents, etc.
    • 95. Power to declare certain publications forfeited and to issue searchwarrants for the same.
    • 96. Application to High Court to set aside declaration of forfeiture.
    • 97. Search for persons wrongfully confined.
    • 98. Power to compel restoration of abducted females.
    • 99. Direction, etc. of searchwarrants.
    • 100. Persons in charge of closed place to allow search.
    • 101. Disposal of things found in search beyond jurisdiction.
    • 102. Power of police officer to seize certain property.
    • 103. Magistrate may direct search in his presence.
    • 104. Power to impound document, etc., produced.
    • 105. Reciprocal arrangements regarding processes.
    • 105A. Definitions.
    • 105B. Assistance in securing transfer of persons.
    • 105C. Assistance in relation to orders of attachment or forfeiture of property.
    • 105D. Identifying unlawfully acquired property.
    • 105E. Seizure or attachment of property.
    • 105F. Management of properties seized or forfeited under this Chapter.
    • 105G. Notice of forfeiture of property.
    • 105H. Forfeiture of property in certain cases.
    • 105I. Fine in lieu of forfeiture.
    • 105J. Certain transfers to be null and void.
    • 105K. Procedure in respect of letter of request.
    • 105L. Application of this Chapter.
    • 106. Security for keeping the peace on conviction.
    • 107. Security for keeping the peace in other cases.
    • 108. Security for good behaviour from persons disseminating seditious matters.
    • 109. Security for good behaviour from suspected persons.
    • 110. Security for good behaviour from habitual offenders.
    • 111. Order to be made.
    • 112. Procedure in respect of person present in Court.
    • 113. Summons or warrant in case of person not so present.
    • 114. Copy of order to accompany summons or warrant.
    • 115. Power to dispense with personal attendance.
    • 116. Inquiry as to truth of information.
    • 117. Order to give security.
    • 118. Discharge of person informed against.
    • 119. Commencement of period for which security is required.
    • 120. Contents of bond.
    • 121. Power to reject sureties.
    • 122. Imprisonment in default of security.
    • 123. Power to release persons imprisoned for failing to give security.
    • 124. Security for unexpired period of bond.
    • 125. Order for maintenance of wives, children and parents.
    • 126. Procedure.
    • 127. Alteration in allowance.
    • 128. Enforcement of order of maintenance.
    • 129. Dispersal of assembly by use of civil force.
    • 130. Use of armed forces to disperse assembly.
    • 131. Power of certain armed force officers to disperse assembly.
    • 132. Protection against prosecution for acts done under preceding section.
    • 133. Conditional order for removal of nuisance.
    • 134. Service or notification of order.
    • 135. Person to whom order is addressed to obey or show cause.
    • 136. Consequences of his failing to do so.
    • 137. Procedure where existence of public right is denied.
    • 138. Procedure where he appears to show cause.
    • 139. Power of Magistrate to direct local investigation and examination of an expert.
    • 140. Power of Magistrate to furnish written instructions, etc.
    • 141. Procedure on order being made absolute and consequences of disobedience.
    • 142. Injunction pending inquiry.
    • 143. Magistrate may prohibit repetition or continuance of public nuisance.
    • 144. Power to issue order in urgent cases of nuisance or apprehended danger.
    • 144A. Power to prohibit carrying arms in possession or mass drill or mass training with arms
    • 145. Procedure where dispute concerning land or water is likely to cause breach of peace.
    • 146. Power to attach subject of dispute and to appoint receiver.
    • 147. Dispute concerning right of use of land or water.
    • 148. Local inquiry.
    • 149. Police to prevent cognisable offences.
    • 150. Information of design to commit cognisable offences.
    • 151. Arrest to prevent the commission of cognisable offence.
    • 152. Prevention of injury to public property.
    • 153. Inspection for weights and measures.
    • 154. Information in cognisable cases.
    • 155. Information as to noncognisable cases and investigation of such cases.
    • 156. Police Officer’s power to investigate cognisable case.
    • 157. Procedure of investigation.
    • 158. Report how submitted.
    • 159. Power to hold investigation or preliminary inquiry.
    • 160. Police officer’s power to require attendance of witnesses.
    • 161. Examination of witnesses by police.
    • 162. Statements to police not to be signed : Use of statements in evidence.
    • 163. No inducement to be offered.
    • 164. Recording of confessions and statements.
    • 164A. Medical examination of the victim of rape
    • 165. Search by police officer
    • 166. When officerincharge of police station may require another to issue searchwarrant.
    • 166A. Letter of request to competent authority for investigation in a country or place outside India.
    • 166B. Letter of request from a country or place outside India to a Court or an authority for investigation in India.
    • 167. Procedure when investigation cannot be completed in twentyfour hours.
    • 168. Report of investigation by subordinate police officer.
    • 169. Release of accused when evidence deficient.
    • 170. Cases to be sent to Magistrate when evidence is sufficient.
    • 171. Complainant and witnesses not to be required to accompany police officer and not to be subject to restraint.
    • 172. Diary of proceedings in investigation.
    • 173. Report of police officer on completion of investigation.
    • 174. Police to enquire and report on suicide, etc.
    • 175. Power to summon persons.
    • 176. Inquiry by Magistrate into cause of death.
    • 177. Ordinary place of inquiry and trial.
    • 178. Place of inquiry or trial.
    • 179. Offence triable, where act is done or consequence ensues.
    • 180. Place of trial where act is an offence by reason of relation to other offence.
    • 181. Place of trial in case of certain offences.
    • 182. Offences committed by letters, etc.
    • 183. Offence committed on journey or voyage.
    • 184. Place of trial for offences triable together.
    • 185. Power to order cases to be tried in different sessions divisions.
    • 186. High Court to decide, the case of doubt, district where inquiry or trial shall take place.
    • 187. Power to issue summons or warrant for offence committed beyond local jurisdiction.
    • 188. Offence committed outside India.
    • 189. Receipt of evidence relating to offences committed outside India.
    • 190. Cognizance of offences by Magistrates.
    • 191. Transfer on application of the accused.
    • 192. Making over of cases to Magistrates.
    • 193. Cognizance of offences by Courts of Session.
    • 194. Additional and Assistant Sessions Judges to try cases made over to them.
    • 195. Prosecution for contempt of lawful authority of public servants, for offences against public justice and for offences relating to documents given in evidence.
    • 195A. Procedure for witnesses in case of threatening, etc.
    • 196. Prosecution for offences against the State and for criminal conspiracy to commit such offence.
    • 197. Prosecution of Judges and public servants.
    • 198. Prosecution for offences against marriage.
    • 198A. Prosecution of offences under section 498A of the Indian penal Code.
    • 198B. Cognizance of Offence.
    • 199. Prosecution for defamation.
    • 200. Examination of complainant.
    • 201. Procedure by Magistrate not competent to take cognizance of the case.
    • 202. Postponement of issue of process.
    • 203. Dismissal of complaint.
    • 204. Issue of process.
    • 205. Magistrate may dispense with personal attendance of accused.
    • 206. Special summons in case of petty offence.
    • 207. Supply to the accused of copy of police report and other documents.
    • 208. Supply of copies of statements and document to accused in other cases triable by Court of Session.
    • 209. Commitment of case to Court of Session when offence is triable exclusively by it.
    • 210. Procedure to be followed when there is a complaint case and police investigation in respect of the same offence.
    • 211. Contents of charge.
    • 212. Particulars as to time, place and person.
    • 213. When manner of committing offence must be stated.
    • 214. Words in charge taken in sense of law under which offence is punishable.
    • 215. Effect of errors.
    • 216. Court may alter charge.
    • 217. Recall of witnesses when charge altered.
    • 218. Separate charges for distinct offences.
    • 219. Three offences of same kind within year may be charged together.
    • 220. Trial for more than one offence.
    • 221. Where it is doubtful what offence has been committed.
    • 222. When offence proved included in offence charged.
    • 223. What persons may be charged jointly.
    • 224. Withdrawal of remaining charges on conviction on one of several charges.
    • 225. Trial to be conducted by Public Prosecutor.
    • 226. Opening case for prosecution.
    • 227. Discharge.
    • 228. Framing of charge.
    • 229. Conviction on plea of guilty.
    • 230. Date for prosecution evidence.
    • 231. Evidence for prosecution.
    • 232. Acquittal.
    • 233. Entering upon defence.
    • 234. Arguments.
    • 235. Judgment of acquittal or conviction.
    • 236. Previous conviction.
    • 237. Procedure in cases instituted under Section 199(2).
    • 238. Compliance with Section 207.
    • 239. When accused shall be discharged.
    • 240. Framing of charge.
    • 241. Conviction on plea of guilty.
    • 242. Evidence for prosecution.
    • 243. Evidence for defence.
    • 244. Evidence for prosecution.
    • 245. When accused shall be discharged.
    • 246. Procedure where accused is not discharged.
    • 247. Evidence for defence.
    • 248. Acquittal or conviction.
    • 249. Absence of complainant.
    • 250. Compensation for accusation without reasonable cause.
    • 251. Substance of accusation to be stated.
    • 252. Conviction on plea of guilty.
    • 253. Conviction on plea of guilty in absence of accused in petty cases.
    • 254. Procedure when not convicted.
    • 255. Acquittal or conviction.
    • 256. Nonappearance or death of complainant.
    • 257. Withdrawal of complaint.
    • 258. Power to stop proceedings in certain cases.
    • 259. Power of Court to convert summonscases into warrantcases.
    • 260. Power to try summarily.
    • 261. Summary trial by Magistrate of the second class.
    • 262. Procedure for summary trials.
    • 263. Record in summary trials.
    • 264. Judgment in cases tried summarily.
    • 265. Language of record and judgment.
    • 265A. Application of the Chapter
    • 265B. Application for plea bargaining.
    • 265C. Guidelines for mutually satisfactory disposition.
    • 265D. Report of the mutually satisfactory disposition to be submitted before the Court.
    • 265E. Disposal of the case.
    • 265F. Judgment of the Court.
    • 265G. Finality of the judgment.
    • 265H. Power of the Court in plea bargaining.
    • 265I. Period of detention undergone by the accused to be set off against the sentence of imprisonment.
    • 265J. Savings.
    • 265K. Statements of accused not to be used.
    • 265L. Nonapplication of the Chapter.
    • 266. Definitions.
    • 267. Power to require attendance of prisoners.
    • 268. Power of State Government to exclude certain persons from operation of Section 267.
    • 269. Officerincharge of prison to abstain from carrying out order in certain contingencies.
    • 270. Prisoner to be brought to Court in custody.
    • 271. Power to issue commission for examination of witness in prison.
    • 272. Language of Courts.
    • 273. Evidence to be taken in presence of accused.
    • 274. Record in summonscase and inquiries.
    • 275. Record in warrantcases.
    • 276. Record in trial before Court of Session.
    • 277. Language of record of evidence.
    • 278. Procedure in regard to such evidence when completed.
    • 279. Interpretation of evidence to accused or his pleader.
    • 280. Remarks respecting demeanour of witness.
    • 281. Record of examination of accused.
    • 282. Interpreter to be bound to interpret truthfully.
    • 283. Record in High Court.
    • 284. When attendance of witness may be dispensed with and commission issued.
    • 285. Commission to whom to be issued.
    • 286. Execution of commissions.
    • 287. Parties may examine witnesses.
    • 288. Return of commission.
    • 289. Adjournment of proceeding.
    • 290. Execution of foreign commissions.
    • 291. Deposition of medical witness.
    • 291A. Identification report of Magistrate
    • 292. Evidence of officers of the Mint.
    • 293. Reports of certain Government scientific experts.
    • 294. No formal proof of certain documents.
    • 295. Affidavit in proof of conduct of public servants.
    • 296. Evidence of formal character on affidavit.
    • 297. Authorities before whom affidavits may be sworn.
    • 298. Previous conviction or acquittal how proved.
    • 299. Record of evidence in absence of accused.
    • 300. Person once convicted or acquitted not to be tried for same offence.
    • 301. Appearance by Public Prosecutors.
    • 302. Permission to conduct prosecution.
    • 303. Right of person against whom proceedings are instituted to be defended.
    • 304. Legal aid to accused at State expense in certain cases.
    • 305. Procedure when corporation or registered society is an accused.
    • 306. Tender of pardon to accomplice.
    • 307. Power to direct tender of pardon.
    • 308. Trial of person not complying with conditions of pardon.
    • 309. Power to postpone or adjourn proceedings.
    • 310. Local Inspection.
    • 311. Power to summon material witness, or examine person present.
    • 311A. Power of Magistrate to order person to give specimen signatures or handwriting.
    • 312. Expenses of complainants and witnesses.
    • 313. Power to examine the accused.
    • 314. Oral arguments and memorandum of arguments.
    • 315. Accused person to be competent witness.
    • 316. No influence to be used to induce disclosure.
    • 317. Provision for inquiries and trial being held in the absence of accused in certain cases.
    • 318. Procedure where accused does not understand proceedings.
    • 319. Power to proceed against other persons appearing to be guilty of offence.
    • 320. Compounding of offences.
    • 321. Withdrawal from prosecution.
    • 322. Procedure in cases which Magistrate cannot dispose of.
    • 323. Procedure when, after commencement of inquiry or trial, Magistrate finds case should be committed.
    • 324. Trial of persons previously convicted of offences against coinage, stamplaw or property.
    • 325. Procedure when Magistrate cannot pass sentence sufficiently severe.
    • 326. Conviction or commitment on evidence partly recorded by one
    • 327. Court to be open.
    • 328. Procedure in case of accused being lunatic.
    • 329. Procedure in case of person of unsound mind tried before Court.
    • 330. Release of person of unsound mind pending investigation or trial.
    • 331. Resumption of inquiry or trial.
    • 332. Procedure on accused appearing before Magistrate or Court.
    • 333. When accused appears to have been of sound mind.
    • 334. Judgment of acquittal on ground of unsoundness of mind.
    • 335. Person acquitted on such ground to be detained in safe custody.
    • 336. Power of State Government to empower officerincharge to discharge.
    • 337. Procedure where lunatic prisoner is reported capable of making his defence.
    • 338. Procedure where lunatic detained is declared fit to be released.
    • 339. Delivery of lunatic to care of relative or friend.
    • 340. Procedure in cases mentioned in Section 195.
    • 341. Appeal.
    • 342. Power to order costs.
    • 343. Procedure of Magistrate taking cognizance.
    • 344. Summary procedure for trial for giving false evidence.
    • 345. Procedure in certain cases of contempt.
    • 346. Procedure where Court considers that case should not be dealt with under Section 345.
    • 347. When Registrar or SubRegistrar to be deemed a Civil Court.
    • 348. Discharge of offender on submission of apology.
    • 349. Imprisonment or committal of person refusing to answer or produce document.
    • 350. Summary procedure for punishment for nonattendance by a witness in obedience to summons.
    • 351. Appeals from convictions under Sections 344, 345, 349 and 350.
    • 352. Certain Judges and Magistrates not to try certain offences when committed before themselves.
    • 353. Judgment.
    • 354. Language and contents of judgment.
    • 355. Metropolitan Magistrate’s judgment.
    • 356. Order for notifying address of previously convicted offender.
    • 357. Order to pay compensation.
    • 357A. Victim compensation scheme.
    • 357B. Compensation to be in addition to fine under section 326A, section 376AB, section 376D, section 376DA and section 376DB of the Indian Penal Code.
    • 357C. Treatment of victims.
    • 358. Compensation to persons groundlessly arrested.
    • 359. Order to pay costs in noncognisable cases.
    • 360. Order to release on probation of good conduct or after admonition.
    • 361. Special reasons to be recorded in certain cases.
    • 362. Court not to alter judgment.
    • 363. Copy of judgment to be given to the accused and other persons.
    • 364. Judgment when to be translated.
    • 365. Court of Session to send copy of finding and sentence to District Magistrate.
    • 366. Sentence of death to be submitted by Court of Session for confirmation.
    • 367. Power to direct further inquiry to be made or additional evidence to be taken.
    • 368. Power of High Court to confirm sentence or annul conviction.
    • 369. Confirmation or new sentence to be signed by two Judges.
    • 370. Procedure in case of difference of opinion.
    • 371. Procedure in cases submitted to High Court for confirmation.
    • 372. No appeal to lie unless otherwise provided.
    • 373. Appeal from orders requiring security or refusal to accept or rejecting surety for keeping peace or good behaviour.
    • 374. Appeals from convictions.
    • 375. No appeal in certain cases when accused pleads guilty.
    • 376. No Appeal in petty cases.
    • 377. Appeal by the State Government against sentence.
    • 378. Appeal in case of acquittal.
    • 379. Appeal against conviction by High Court in certain cases.
    • 380. Special right of appeal in certain cases.
    • 381. Appeal to Court of Session how heard.
    • 382. Petition of appeal.
    • 383. Procedure when appellant in jail.
    • 384. Summary dismissal of appeal.
    • 385. Procedure for hearing appeals not dismissed summarily.
    • 386. Powers of the Appellate Court.
    • 387. Judgments of subordinate Appellate Court.
    • 388. Order of High Court on appeal to be certified to lower Court.
    • 389. Suspension of sentence pending the appeal; release of appellant on bail.
    • 390. Arrest of accused in appeal from acquittal.
    • 391. Appellate Court may take further evidence or direct it to be taken.
    • 392. Procedure where Judges of Court of Appeal are equally divided.
    • 393. Finality of judgments and orders on appeal.
    • 394. Abatement of appeals.
    • 395. Reference to High Court.
    • 396. Disposal of case according to decision of High Court.
    • 397. Calling for records to exercise powers of revision.
    • 398. Power to order inquiry.
    • 399. Sessions Judge’s powers of revision.
    • 400. Power of Additional Sessions Judge.
    • 401. High Court’s powers of revision.
    • 402. Power of High Court to withdraw or transfer revision cases.
    • 403. Option of Court to hear parties.
    • 404. Statement by Metropolitan Magistrate of grounds of his decision to be considered by High Court.
    • 405. High Court’s order to be certified to lower Court.
    • 406. Power of Supreme Court to transfer cases and appeals.
    • 407. Power of High Court to transfer cases and appeals.
    • 408. Powers of Sessions Judge to transfer cases and appeals.
    • 409. Withdrawal of cases and appeals by Sessions Judges.
    • 410. Withdrawal of cases by Judicial Magistrates.
    • 411. Making over or withdrawal of cases by Executive Magistrates.
    • 412. Reasons to be recorded.
    • 413. Execution of order passed under Section 368.
    • 414. Execution of sentence of death passed by High Court.
    • 415. Postponement of execution of sentence of death in case of appeal to Supreme Court.
    • 416. Postponement of capital sentence on pregnant woman.
    • 417. Power to appoint place of imprisonment.
    • 418. Execution of sentence of imprisonment.
    • 419. Direction of warrant for execution.
    • 420. Warrant with whom to be lodged.
    • 421. Warrant for levy of fine.
    • 422. Effect of such warrant.
    • 423. Warrant for levy of fine issued by a Court in any territory to which this Code does not extend.
    • 424. Suspension of execution of sentence of imprisonment.
    • 425. Who may issue warrant.
    • 426. Sentence on escaped convict when to take effect.
    • 427. Sentence on offender already sentenced for another offence.
    • 428. Period of detention undergone by the accused to be set off against the sentence of imprisonment.
    • 429. Saving.
    • 430. Return of warrant on execution of sentence.
    • 431. Money ordered to be paid recoverable as a fine.
    • 432. Power to suspend or remit sentences.
    • 433. Power to commute sentence.
    • 433A. Restriction on powers of remission or commutation in certain cases.
    • 434. Concurrent power of Central Government in case of death sentences.
    • 435. State Government to act after consultation with Central Government in certain cases.
    • 436. In what cases bail to be taken.
    • 436A. Maximum period for which an under trial prisoner can be detained.
    • 437. When bail may be taken in case of nonbailable offence.
    • 437A. Bail to require accused to appear before next Appellate Court.
    • 438. Direction for grant of bail to person apprehending arrest.
    • 439. Special powers of High Court or Court of Session regarding bail.
    • 440. Amount of bond and reduction thereof.
    • 441. Bond of accused and sureties.
    • 441A. Declaration by sureties.
    • 442. Discharge from custody.
    • 443. Power to order sufficient bail when that first taken is insufficient.
    • 444. Discharge of sureties.
    • 445. Deposit instead of recognisance.
    • 446. Procedure when bond has been forfeited.
    • 446A. Cancellation of bond and bailbond.
    • 447. Procedure in case of insolvency or death of surety or when a bond is forfeited.
    • 448. Bond required from minor.
    • 449. Appeal from orders under section 446.
    • 450. Power to direct levy of amount due on certain recognisances.
    • 451. Order for custody and disposal of property pending trial in certain cases.
    • 452. Order for disposal of property at conclusion of trial.
    • 453. Payment to innocent purchaser of money found on accused.
    • 454. Appeal against orders under Section 452 or Section 453.
    • 455. Destruction of libellous and other matter.
    • 456. Power to restore possession of immovable property.
    • 457. Procedure by police upon seizure of property.
    • 458. Procedure where no claimant appears within six months.
    • 459. Power to sell perishable property.
    • 460. Irregularities which do not vitiate proceedings.
    • 461. Irregularities which vitiate proceedings.
    • 462. Proceedings in wrong place.
    • 463. Noncompliance with provisions of Section 164 or Section 281.
    • 464. Effect of omission to frame, or absence of, or error in, charge.
    • 465. Finding or sentence when reversible by reason of error, omission or irregularity.
    • 466. Defect or error not to make attachment unlawful.
    • 467. Definitions.
    • 468. Bar to taking cognizance after lapse of the period of limitation.
    • 469. Commencement of the period of limitation.
    • 470. Exclusion of time in certain cases.
    • 471. Exclusion of date on which Court is closed.
    • 472. Continuing offence.
    • 473. Extension of period of limitation in certain cases.
    • 474. Trials before High Courts.
    • 475. Delivery to Commanding Officers of persons liable to be tried by Courtmartial.
    • 476. Forms.
    • 477. Power of High Court to make rules.
    • 478. Power to alter functions allocated to Executive Magistrates in certain cases.
    • 479. Case in which Judge or Magistrate is personally interested.
    • 480. Practising pleader not to sit as Magistrate in certain Courts.
    • 481. Public servant concerned in sale not to purchase or bid for property.
    • 482. Saving of inherent powers of High Court.
    • 483. Duty of High Court to exercise continuous superintendence over Courts of Judicial Magistrates.
    • 484. Repeal and savings.

The Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973

(Act No. 2 of 1974)


An Act to consolidate and amend the law relating to Criminal Procedure.

Be it enacted by Parliament in the Twenty-fourth Year of the Republic of India as follows :-

CHAPTER I

Preliminary

1. Short title, extent and commencement. – (1) This Act may be called the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973.

(2) It extends to the whole of India [***] :

Provided that the provisions of this Code, other than those relating to Chapters VIII, X and XI thereof, shall not apply –

(a) to the State of Nagaland,

(b) to the Tribal Areas,

but the concerned State Government may, by notification, apply such provisions or any of them to the whole or part of the State of Nagaland or such tribal areas, as the case may be, with such supplemental, incidental or consequential modifications as may be specified in the notification.

Explanation. – In this section, “tribal areas” means the territories which immediately before the 21st day of January, 1972, were included in the tribal areas of Assam, as referred to in Paragraph 20 of the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution, other than those within the local limits of the municipality of Shillong.

(3) It shall come into force on the 1st day of April, 1974.

2. Definitions. – In this Code, unless the context otherwise requires, –

(a) “bailable offence” means an offence which is shown as bailable in the First Schedule, or which is made bailable by any other law for the time being in force; and “non-bailable offence” means any other offence;

(b) “charge” includes any head of charge when the charge contains more heads than one;

(c) “cognisable offence” means an offence for which, and “cognisable case” means a case in which a police officer may, in accordance with the First Schedule or under any other law for the time being in force, arrest without warrant;

(d) “complaint” means any allegation made orally or in writing to a Magistrate, with a view to his taking action under this Code, that some person, whether known or unknown, has committed an offence, but does not include a police report.

Explanation. – A report made by a police officer in a case which discloses, after investigation, the commission of a non-cognisable offence shall be deemed to be a complaint; and the police officer by whom such report is made shall be deemed to be the complainant;

(e) “High Court” means, –

(i) in relation to any State, the High Court for that State;

(ii) in relation to a Union territory to which the jurisdiction of the High Court for a State has been extended by law, that High Court;

(iii) in relation to any other Union territory, the highest Court of criminal appeal for that territory other than the Supreme Court of India;

(f) “India” means the territories to which this Code extends; .

(g) “inquiry” means every inquiry, other than a trial, conducted under this Code by a Magistrate or Court;

(h) “investigation” includes all the proceedings under this Code for the collection of evidence conducted by a police officer or by any person (other than a Magistrate) who is authorised by a Magistrate in this behalf;

(i) “judicial proceeding” includes any proceeding in the course of which evidence is or may be legally taken on oath;

(j) “local jurisdiction”, in relation to a Court or Magistrate, means the local area within which the Court or Magistrate may exercise all or any of its or his powers under this Code; [and such local area may comprise the whole of the State or any part of the State, as the State Government may, by notification, specify];

(k) “metropolitan area” means the area declared, or deemed to be declared, under section 8, to be a metropolitan area;

(l) “non-cognisable offence” means an offence for which, and “non-cognisable case” means a case in which, a police officer has no authority to arrest without warrant;

(m) “notification” means a notification published in the official Gazette;

(n) “offence” means any act or omission made punishable by any law for the time being in force and includes any act in respect of which a complaint may be made under section 20 of the Cattle-Trespass Act, 1871 (1 of 1871);

(o) “officer-in-charge of a police station” includes, when the officer-in-charge of the police station is absent from the station-house or unable from illness or other cause to perform his duties, the police officer present at the station-house who is next in rank to such officer and is above the rank of a constable or, when the State Government so directs, any other police officer so present;

(p) “place” includes a house, building, tent, vehicle and vessel;

(q) “pleader” when used with reference to any proceeding in any Court, means a person authorised by or under any law for the time being in force, to practice in such Court, and includes any other person appointed with the permission of the Court to act in such proceeding;

(r) “police report” means a report forwarded by a police officer to a Magistrate under sub-section (2) of section 173;

(s) “police station” means any post or place declared generally or specially by the State Government, to be a police station, and includes any local area specified by the State Government in this behalf;

(t) “prescribed” means prescribed by rules made under this Code;

(u) “Public Prosecutor” means any person appointed under section 24, and includes any person acting under the directions of a Public Prosecutor;

(v) “sub-division” means a sub-division of a district;

(w) “summons-case” means a case relating to an offence, and not being a warrant-case;

[(wa)”victim” means a person who has suffered any loss or injury caused by reason of the act or omission for which the accused person has been charged and the expression “victim” includes his or her guardian or legal heir;]

(x) “warrant-case” means a case relating to an offence punishable with death, imprisonment for life or imprisonment for a term exceeding two years;

(y) words and expressions used herein and not defined but defined in the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) have the meanings respectively assigned to them in that Code.

3. Construction of references. – (1) In this Code, –

(a) any reference, without any qualifying words, to a Magistrate, shall be construed, unless the context otherwise requires :-

(i) in relation to an area outside a metropolitan area, as a reference to a Judicial Magistrate;

(ii) in relation to a metropolitan area, as a reference to a Metropolitan Magistrate;

(b) any reference to a Magistrate of the second class shall, in relation to an area outside a metropolitan area, be construed as a reference to a Judicial Magistrate of the second class, and, in relation to a metropolitan area, as a reference to a Metropolitan Magistrate;

(c) any reference to a Magistrate of the first class shall, –

(i) in relation to a metropolitan area, be construed as a reference to a Metropolitan Magistrate exercising jurisdiction in that area;

(ii) in relation to any other area, be construed as a reference to a Judicial Magistrate of the first class exercising jurisdiction in that area :

(d) any reference to the Chief Judicial Magistrate shall, in relation to a metropolitan area, be construed as a reference to the Chief Metropolitan Magistrate exercising jurisdiction in that area.

(2) In this Code, unless the context otherwise requires, any reference to the Court of a Judicial Magistrate shall, in relation to a metropolitan area, be construed as a reference to the Court of the Metropolitan Magistrate for that area.

(3) Unless the context otherwise requires, any reference in any enactment passed before the commencement of this Code, –

(a) to a Magistrate of the first class, shall be construed as a reference to a Judicial Magistrate of the first class;

(b) to a Magistrate of the second class or of the third class, shall be construed as a reference to a Judicial Magistrate of the second class;

(c) to a Presidency Magistrate or Chief Presidency Magistrate, shall be construed as a reference, respectively, to a Metropolitan Magistrate or the Chief Metropolitan Magistrate;

(d) to any area which is included in a metropolitan area, as a reference to such metropolitan area, and any reference to a Magistrate of the first class or of the second class in relation to such area, shall be construed as a reference to the Metropolitan Magistrate exercising jurisdiction in such area.

(4) Where, under any law, other than this Code, the functions exercisable by a Magistrate relate to matters –

(a) which involve the appreciation or sifting of evidence or the formulation of any decision which exposes any person to any punishment or penalty or detention in custody pending investigation, inquiry or trial or would have the effect of sending him for trial before any Court, they shall, subject to the provisions of this Code, be exercisable by a Judicial Magistrate; or

(b) which are administrative or executive in nature, such as, the granting of a licence, the suspension or cancellation of a licence, sanctioning prosecution or withdrawing from a prosecution, they shall, subject as aforesaid, be exercisable by an Executive Magistrate.

4. Trial of offences under the Indian Penal Code and other laws. – (1) All offences under the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) shall be investigated, inquired into, tried, and otherwise dealt with according to the provisions hereinafter contained.

(2) All offences under any other law shall be investigated, inquired into, tried, and otherwise dealt with according to the same provisions but subject to any enactment for the time being in force regulating the manner or place of investigating, inquiring into, trying or otherwise dealing with such offences

5. Saving. – Nothing contained in this Code shall, in the absence of a specific provision to the contrary, affect any special or local law for the time being in force or any special jurisdiction or power conferred, or any special form of procedure prescribed by any other law for the time being in force.

CHAPTER II

Constitution Of Criminal Courts And Offices

6. Classes of Criminal Courts. – Besides the High Courts and the Courts constituted under any law, other than this Code, there shall be, in every State, the following classes of Criminal Courts, namely, –

(i) Courts of Session;

(ii) Judicial Magistrates of the first class and, in any metropolitan area, Metropolitan Magistrate;

(iii) Judicial Magistrates of the second class; and

(iv) Executive Magistrates.

7. Territorial divisions. – (1) Every State shall be a sessions division or shall consist of sessions divisions; and every sessions division shall, for the purposes of this Code, be a district or consist of districts :

Provided that every metropolitan area shall, for the said purposes, be a separate sessions division and district.

(2) The State Government may, after consultation with the High Court, alter the limits or the number of such divisions and districts.

(3) The State Government may, after consultation with High Court, divide any district into sub-divisions and may alter the limits or the number of such sub-divisions.

(4) The sessions divisions, districts and sub-divisions existing in a State at the commencement of this Code, shall be deemed to have been formed under this section.

8. Metropolitan areas. – (1) The State Government may, by notification, declare that, as from such date as may be specified in the notification, any area in the State comprising a city or town whose population exceeds one million shall be a metropolitan area for the purposes of this Code.

(2) As from the commencement of this Code, each of the Presidency-towns of Bombay, Calcutta and Madras and the city of Ahmadabad shall be deemed to be declared under sub-section (1) to be a metropolitan area.

(3) The State Government may, by notification, extend, reduce or alter the limits of a metropolitan area but the reduction or alteration shall not be so made as to reduce the population of such area to less than one million.

(4) Where, after an area has been declared, or deemed to have been declared to be, a metropolitan area, the population of such area falls below one million, such area shall, on and from such date as the State Government may, by notification, specify in this behalf, cease to be a metropolitan area; but notwithstanding such cesser, any inquiry, trial or appeal pending immediately before such cesser before any Court or Magistrate in such area shall continue to be dealt with under this Code, as if such cesser had not taken place.

(5) Where the State Government reduces or alters, under sub-section (3), the limits of any metropolitan area, such reduction or alteration shall not affect any inquiry, trial or appeal pending immediately before such reduction or alteration before any Court or Magistrate, and every such inquiry, trial or appeal shall continue to be dealt with under this Code as if such reduction or alteration had not taken place.

Explanation. – In this section, the expression “population” means the population as ascertained at the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published.

9. Court of Session. – (1) The State Government shall establish a Court of Session for every sessions division.

(2) Every Court of Session shall be presided over by a Judge, to be appointed by the High Court.

(3) The High Court may also appoint Additional Sessions Judges and Assistant Sessions Judges to exercise jurisdiction in a Court of Session.

(4) The Sessions Judge of one sessions division may be appointed by the High Court to be also an Additional Sessions Judge of another division, and in such case he may sit for the disposal of cases at such place or places in the other division as the High Court may direct.

(5) Where the office of the Sessions Judge is vacant, the High Court may make arrangements for the disposal of any urgent application which is, or may be, made or pending before such Court of Session by an Additional or Assistant Sessions Judge, or if there be no Additional or Assistant Session Judge, by a Chief Judicial Magistrate, in the sessions division, and every such Judge or Magistrate shall have jurisdiction to deal with any such application.

(6) The Court of Session shall ordinarily hold its sitting at such place or places as the High Court may, by notification specify; but if, in any particular case, the Court of Session is of opinion that it will tend to the general convenience of the parties and witnesses to hold its sittings at any other place in the sessions division, it may, with the consent of the prosecution and the accused, sit at that place for the disposal of the case or the examination of any witness or witnesses therein.

Explanation. – For the purposes of this Code, “appointment” does not include the first appointment, posting or promotion of a person by the Government to any service, or post in connection with the affairs of the Union or of a State, where under any law, such appointment, posting or promotion is required to be made by Government.

10. Subordination of Assistant Sessions Judges. – (1) All Assistant Sessions Judges shall be subordinate to the Sessions Judge in whose Court they exercise jurisdiction.

(2) The Sessions Judge may, from time to time, make rules consistent with this Code, as to the distribution of business among such Assistant Sessions Judges.

(3) The Sessions Judge may also make provision for disposal of any urgent application, in event of his absence or inability to act, by an Additional or Assistant Sessions Judge, or, if there be no Additional or Assistant Sessions Judge, by the Chief Judicial Magistrate, and every such Judge or Magistrate shall be deemed to have jurisdiction to deal with any such application.

11. Courts of Judicial Magistrates. – (1) In every district (not being a metropolitan area), there shall be established as many Courts of Judicial Magistrates of the first class and of the second class and at such places, as the State Government may after consultation with the High Court, by notification, specify :

[Provided that the State Government may, after consultation with the High Court, establish, for any local area, one or more Special Courts of Judicial Magistrates of the first class or of the second class to try any particular case or particular class of cases, and where any such Special Court is established, no other court of Magistrate in the local area shall have jurisdiction to try any case or class of cases for the trial of which such Special Court of Judicial Magistrate has been established].

(2) The presiding officers of such Courts shall be appointed by the High Court.

(3) The High Court may, whenever it appears to it to be expedient or necessary, confer the powers of a Judicial Magistrate of the first class or of the second class on any member of the Judicial Service of the State, functioning as a Judge in a Civil Court.

12. Chief Judicial Magistrate and Additional Chief Judicial Magistrate, etc. – (1) In every district (not being a metropolitan area), the High Court shall appoint a Judicial Magistrate of the first class to be the Chief Judicial Magistrate.

(2) The High Court may appoint any Judicial Magistrate of the first class to be an Additional Chief Judicial Magistrate, and such Magistrate shall have all or any of the powers of a Chief Judicial Magistrate under this Code or under any other law for the time being in force as the High Court may direct.

(3) (a) The High Court may designate any Judicial Magistrate of the first class in any sub-division as the Sub-divisional Judicial Magistrate and relieve him of the responsibilities specified in this section as occasion requires.

(b) Subject to the general control of the Chief Judicial Magistrate, every Sub-Divisional Judicial Magistrate shall also have and exercise, such powers of supervision and control over the work of the Judicial Magistrates (other than Additional Chief Judicial Magistrates) in the sub-division as the High Court may, by general or special order, specify in this behalf.

13. Special Judicial Magistrates. – (1) The High Court may, if requested by the Central or State Government so to do, confer upon any person who holds or has held any post under the Government, all or any of the powers conferred or conferable by or under this Code on a Judicial Magistrate [of the first class or of the second class in respect to particular cases or to a particular classes of cases, in any local area, not being a metropolitan area] :

Provided that no such power shall be conferred on a person unless he possesses such qualification or experience in relation to legal affairs as the High Court may, by rules, specify.

(2) Such Magistrates shall be called Special Judicial Magistrates and shall be appointed for such term, not exceeding one year at a time, as the High Court may, by general or special order, direct.

[(3) The High Court may empower a Special Judicial Magistrate to exercise the powers of a Metropolitan Magistrate in relation to any metropolitan area outside his local jurisdiction].

14. Local Jurisdiction of Judicial Magistrates. – (1) Subject to the control of the High Court, the Chief Judicial Magistrate may, from time to time, define the local limits of the areas within which the Magistrates appointed under section 11 or under section 13 may exercise all or any of the powers with which they may respectively be invested under this Code :

[Provided that the Court of a Special Judicial Magistrate may hold its sitting at any place within the local area for which it is established.]

(2) Except as otherwise provided by such definition, the jurisdiction and powers of every such Magistrate shall extend throughout the district.

[(3) Where the local jurisdiction of a Magistrate, appointed under section 11 or section 13 or section 18, extends to an area beyond the district, or the metropolitan area, as the case may be, in which he ordinarily holds Court, any reference in this Code to the Court of Session, Chief Judicial Magistrate or the Chief Metropolitan Magistrate shall, in relation to such Magistrate, throughout the area within his local jurisdiction, be construed, unless the context otherwise requires, as a reference to the Court of Session, Chief Judicial Magistrate, or Chief Metropolitan Magistrate, as the case may be, exercising jurisdiction in relation to the said district or metropolitan area.]

15. Subordination of Judicial Magistrates. – (1) Every Chief Judicial Magistrate shall be subordinate to the Sessions Judge; and every other Judicial Magistrate shall, subject to the general control of the Sessions Judge, be subordinate to the Chief Judicial Magistrate.

(2) The Chief Judicial Magistrate may, from time to time, make rules or give special orders, consistent with this Code, as to the distribution of business among the Judicial Magistrates subordinate to him.

16. Courts of Metropolitan Magistrates. – (1) In every metropolitan area, there shall be established as many Courts of Metropolitan Magistrates, and at such places, as the State Government may, after consultation with the High Court, by notification, specify.

(2) The presiding officers of such Courts shall be appointed by the High Court.

(3) The jurisdiction and powers of every Metropolitan Magistrate shall extend throughout the metropolitan area.

17. Chief Metropolitan Magistrate and Additional Chief Metropolitan Magistrate. – (1) The High Court, shall, in relation to every metropolitan area within its local jurisdiction, appoint a Metropolitan Magistrate to be the Chief Metropolitan Magistrate for such metropolitan area.

(2) The High Court may appoint any Metropolitan Magistrate to be an Additional Chief Metropolitan Magistrate, and such Magistrate shall have all or any of the powers of a Chief Metropolitan Magistrate under this Code or under any other law for the time being in force as the High Court may direct.

18. Special Metropolitan Magistrate. – (1) The High Court may, if requested by the Central or State Government so to do, confer upon any person who holds or has held any post under the Government, all or any of the powers conferred or conferable by or under this Code on a Metropolitan Magistrate, in respect to particular cases or to particular classes of cases [* * *] in any metropolitan area within its local jurisdiction :

Provided that no such power shall be conferred on a person unless he possesses such qualification or experience in relation to legal affairs as the High Court may, by rules, specify.

(2) Such Magistrates shall be called Special Metropolitan Magistrates and shall be appointed for such term, not exceeding one year at a time, as the High Court may, by general or special order, direct.

[(3) The High Court or the State Government, as the case may be, may empower any Special Metropolitan Magistrate to exercise, in any local area outside the metropolitan area, the powers of a Judicial Magistrate of the first class.]

19. Subordination of Metropolitan Magistrates. – (1) The Chief Metropolitan Magistrate and every Additional Chief Metropolitan Magistrate shall be subordinate to the Sessions Judge; and every other Metropolitan Magistrate shall, subject to the general control of the Sessions Judge, be subordinate to the Chief Metropolitan Magistrate.

(2) The High Court for the purposes of this Code, define the extent of the subordination, if any, of the Additional Chief Metropolitan Magistrates to the Chief Metropolitan Magistrate.

(3) The Chief Metropolitan Magistrate may, from time to time, make rules or give special orders, consistent with this Code, as to the distribution of business among the Metropolitan Magistrates and as to the allocation of business to an Additional Chief Metropolitan Magistrate.

20. Executive Magistrates. – (1) In every district and in every metropolitan area, the State Government may appoint as many persons as it thinks fit to be Executive Magistrates and shall appoint one of them to be the District Magistrate.

(2) The State Government may appoint any Executive Magistrate to be an Additional District Magistrate, and such Magistrate shall have [such] of the powers of a District Magistrate under this Code or under any other law for the time being in force, [as may be directed by the State Government].

(3) Whenever, in consequence of the office of a District Magistrate becoming vacant, any officer succeeds temporarily to the executive administration of the district, such officer shall, pending the orders of the State Government, exercise all the powers and perform all the duties respectively conferred and imposed by this Code on the District Magistrate.

(4) The State Government may place an Executive Magistrate in charge of a sub-division and may relieve him of the charge as occasion requires; and the Magistrate so placed in charge of a sub-division shall be called the Sub-Divisional Magistrate.

[(4-A) The State Government may, by general or special order and subject to such control and directions as it may deem fit to impose, delegate its powers under sub-section (4) to the District Magistrate.]

(5) Nothing in this section shall preclude the State Government from conferring, under any law for the time being in force, on a Commissioner of Police, all or any of the powers of an Executive Magistrate in relation to a metropolitan area.

21. Special Executive Magistrates. – The State Government may appoint for such term as it may think fit, Executive Magistrates to be known as Special Executive Magistrates, for particular areas or for the performance of particular functions and confer on such Special Executive Magistrates such of the powers as are conferable under this Code on Executive Magistrates, as it may deem fit.

22. Local jurisdiction of Executive Magistrates. – (1) Subject to the control of the State Government, the District Magistrate may, from time to time, define the local limits of the areas within which the Executive Magistrates may exercise all or any of the powers with which they may be invested under this Code.

(2) Except as otherwise provided by such definition, the jurisdiction and powers of every such Magistrate shall extend throughout the district.

23. Subordination of Executive Magistrates. – (1) All Executive Magistrates, other than the Additional District Magistrate, shall be subordinate to the District Magistrate, and every Executive Magistrate (other than the Sub-Divisional Magistrate) exercising powers in a sub-Division shall also be subordinate to the Sub-divisional Magistrate subject, however, to the general control of the District Magistrate.

(2) The District Magistrate may, from time to time, make rules or give special orders, consistent with this Code as to the distribution of business among the Executive Magistrates subordinate to him and as to the allocation of business to an Additional District Magistrate.

[24. Public Prosecutors. – (1) For every High Court, the Central Government or the State Government shall, after consultation with the High Court, appoint a Public Prosecutor and may also appoint one or more Additional Public Prosecutors, for conducting in such Court, any prosecution, appeal or other proceeding on behalf of the Central Government or State Government, as the case may be.

(2) The Central Government may appoint one or more Public Prosecutors for the purpose of conducting any case or class of cases in any district or local area.

(3) For every district, the State Government shall appoint a Public Prosecutor and may also appoint one or more Additional Public Prosecutors for the district :

Provided that the Public Prosecutor or Additional Public Prosecutor appointed for one district may be appointed also to be a Public Prosecutor or an Additional Public Prosecutor, as the case may be, for another district.

(4) The District Magistrate shall, in consultation with the Sessions Judge, prepare a panel of names of persons, who are, in his opinion, fit to be appointed as Public Prosecutors or Additional Public Prosecutors for the district.

(5) No person shall be appointed by the State Government as the Public Prosecutor or Additional Public Prosecutor for the district unless his name appears in the panel of names prepared by the District Magistrate under sub-section (4).

(6) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (5), where in a State there exists a regular Cadre of Prosecuting Officers, the State Government shall appoint a Public Prosecutor or an Additional Public Prosecutor only from among the persons constituting such Cadre :

Provided that where, in the opinion of the State Government, no suitable person is available in such Cadre for such appointment that Government may appoint a person as Public Prosecutor or Additional Public Prosecutor, as the case may be, from the panel of names prepared by the District Magistrate under sub-section (4).

[Explanation. – For the purpose of this sub-section, –

(a) “regular Cadre of Prosecuting Officers” means a Cadre of Prosecuting Officers which includes therein the post of a Public Prosecutor, by whatever name called, and which provides for promotion of Assistant Public Prosecutors, by whatever name called, to that post;

(b) “Prosecuting Officer” means a person by whatever name called, appointment to perform the functions of a Public Prosecutor, an Additional Public Prosecutor or an Assistant Public Prosecutor under this Code.]

(7) A person shall be eligible to be appointed as a Public Prosecutor or an Additional Public Prosecutor under sub-section (1) or sub-section (2) or sub-section (3) or sub-section (6), only if he has been in practice as an advocate for not less than seven years.

(8) The Central Government or the State Government may appoint, for the purposes of any case or class of cases, a person who has been in practice as an advocate for not less than ten years as a Special Public Prosecutor.

[Provided that the Court may permit the victim to engage an advocate of his choice to assist the prosecution under this sub-Section.]

(9) For the purposes of sub-section (7) and sub-section (8), the period during which a person has been in practice as a pleader, or has rendered (whether before or after the commencement of this Code) service as a Public Prosecutor or as an Additional Public Prosecutor or Assistant Public Prosecutor or other Prosecuting Officer, by whatever name called, shall be deemed to be the period during which such person has been in practice as an advocate.]

25. Assistant Public Prosecutors. – (1) The State Government shall appoint in every district one or more Assistant Public Prosecutors for conducting prosecutions in the Courts of Magistrates.

[(1-A) The Central Government may appoint one or more Assistant Public Prosecutors for the purpose of conducting any case or class or cases in the Courts of Magistrates.]

(2) Save as otherwise provided in sub-section (3), no police officer shall be eligible to be appointed as an Assistant Public Prosecutor.

(3) Where no Assistant Public Prosecutor is available for the purposes of any particular case, the District Magistrate may appoint any other person to be the Assistant Public Prosecutor in charge of that case :

Provided that a police officer shall not be so appointed –

(a) if he has taken any part in the investigation into the offence with respect to which the accused is being prosecuted; or

(b) if he is below the rank of Inspector.

[25-A. Directorate of Prosecution. – (1) The State Government may establish a Directorate of Prosecution consisting of a Director of Prosecution and as many Deputy Directors of Prosecution as it thinks fir.

(2) A person shall be eligible to be appointed as a Director of Prosecution or a Deputy Director of Prosecution, only if he has been in practising as an the concurrence of the Chief Justice of the High Court.

(3) The Head of the Directorate of Prosecution shall be the Director of Prosecution, who shall function under the administrative control of the Head of the Home Department in the State.

(4) Every Deputy Director of Prosecution shall be subordinate to the Director of Prosecution.

(5) Every Public Prosecutor, Additional Public Prosecutor and Special Public Prosecutor appointed by the State Government under sub-Section 1 or as the case may be, sub-section 8 of Section 24 to conduct cases in the High Court shall be subordinate to the Director of Prosecution.

(6) Every Public Prosecutor, Additional Public Prosecutor and Special Public Prosecutor appointed by the State Government under sub-Section 3 or as the case may be, sub-section 8, of Section 24 to conduct cases in the District Court and every Assistant Public Prosecutor appointed under sub-section 1 of Section 25 shall be subordinate to the Deputy Director of Prosecutor.

(7) The powers and functions of the Directors of Prosecution and the Deputy Director of Prosecution and the areas for which each of the Deputy Directors of Prosecution have been appointed shall be such as the State Government may, by notification, specify,

(8) The provisions of Section shall not apply to the Advocate General of the State while performing the functions of a Public Prosecutor.]

CHAPTER III

Power Of Courts

26. Courts by which offences are triable. – Subject to the other provisions of this Code, –

(a) any offence under the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) may be tried by –

(i) the High Court, or

(ii) the Court of Session, or

(iii) any other Court by which such offence is shown in the First Schedule to be triable;

[Provided that any [offence under section 376, [section 376A, section 376AB, section 376B, section 376C, section 376D, section 376DA, section 376DB,] or section 376E of the Indian Penal Code] (45 of 1860) Shall be tried as far as practicable by a Court presided over by a woman;]

(b) any offence under any other law shall, when any Court is mentioned in this behalf in such law, be tried by such Court and when no Court is so mentioned, may be tried by –

(i) the High Court, or

(ii) any other Court by which such offence is shown in the First Schedule to be triable.

27. Jurisdiction in the case of juveniles. – Any offence not punishable with death or imprisonment for life, committed by any person who at the date when he appears or is brought before the Court is under the age of sixteen years, may be tried by the Court of a Chief Judicial Magistrate, or by any Court specially empowered under the Children Act, 1960 (60 of 1960), or any other law for the time being in force providing for the treatment, training and rehabilitation of youthful offenders.

28. Sentences which High Courts and Sessions Judges may pass. – (1) A High Court may pass any sentence authorised by law.

(2) A Sessions Judge or Additional Sessions Judge may pass any sentence authorised by law; but any sentence of death passed by any such Judge shall be subject to confirmation by the High Court.

(3) An Assistant Sessions Judge may pass any sentence authorised by law except a sentence of death or of imprisonment for life or of imprisonment for a term exceeding ten years.

29. Sentences which Magistrates may pass. – (1) The Court of a Chief Judicial Magistrate may pass any sentence authorised by law except a sentence of death or of imprisonment for life or of imprisonment for a term exceeding seven years.

(2) The Court of a Magistrate of the first class may pass a sentence of imprisonment for a term not exceeding three years, or of fine not exceeding [ten thousand rupees], or of both.

(3) The Court of a Magistrate of the second class may pass a sentence of imprisonment for a term not exceeding one year, or of fine not exceeding [five thousand rupees], or of both.

(4) The Court of a Chief Metropolitan Magistrate shall have the powers of the Court of a Chief Judicial Magistrate and that of a Metropolitan Magistrate, the powers of the Court of a Magistrate of the first class.

30. Sentence of imprisonment in default of fine. – (1) The Court of a Magistrate may award such term of imprisonment in default of payment of fine as is authorised by law :

Provided that the term –

(a) is not in excess of the powers of the Magistrate under section 29;

(b) shall not, where imprisonment has been awarded as part of the substantive sentence, exceed one-fourth of the term of imprisonment which the Magistrate is competent to inflict as punishment for the offence otherwise than as imprisonment in default of payment of the fine.

(2) The imprisonment awarded under this section may be in addition to a substantive sentence of imprisonment for the maximum term award able by the Magistrate under section 29.

31. Sentence in cases of conviction of several offences at one trial. – (1) When a person is convicted at one trial of two or more offences, the Court may subject to the provisions of section 71 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), sentence him for such offences, to the several punishments prescribed therefor which such Court is competent to inflict; such punishments when consisting of imprisonment to commence the one after the expiration of the other in such order as the Court may direct, unless the Court directs that such punishments shall run concurrently.

(2) In the case of consecutive sentences, it shall not be necessary for the Court by reason only of the aggregate punishment for the several offences being in excess of the punishment which it is competent to inflict on conviction of a single offence, to send the offender for trial before a higher Court :

Provided that –

(a) in no case shall such person be sentenced to imprisonment for a longer period than fourteen years;

(b) the aggregate punishment shall not exceed twice the amount of punishment which the Court is competent to inflict for a single offence.

(3) For the purpose of appeal by a convicted person, the aggregate of the consecutive sentences passed against him under this section shall be deemed to be a single sentence.

32. Mode of conferring powers. – (1) In conferring powers under this Code, the High Court or the State Government, as the case may be, may, by order, empower persons specially by name or in virtue of their offices or classes of officials generally by their official titles.

(2) Every such order shall take effect from the date on which it is communicated to the person so empowered

33. Powers of officers appointed. – Whenever any person holding an office in the service of Government, who has been invested by the High Court or the State Government with any powers under this Code throughout any local area is appointed to an equal or higher office of the same nature, within a like local area under the same State Government, he shall, unless the High Court or the State Government, as the case may be, otherwise directs, or has otherwise directed, exercise the same powers in the local area in which he is so appointed.

34. Withdrawal of powers. – (1) The High Court or the State Government, as the case may be, may withdraw all or any of the powers conferred by it under this Code on any person or by any officer subordinate to it.

(2) Any powers conferred by the Chief Judicial Magistrate or by the District Magistrate may be withdrawn by the respective Magistrate by whom such powers were conferred.

35. Powers of Judges and Magistrates exercisable by their successors in-office. – (1) Subject to the other provisions of this Code, the powers and duties of a Judge or Magistrate may be exercised or performed by his successor-in-office.

(2) When there is any doubt as to who is the successor-in-office of any Additional or Assistant Sessions Judge, the Sessions Judge shall determine by order in writing the Judge who shall, for the purposes of this Code or of any proceedings or order thereunder, be deemed to be the successor-in-office of such Additional or Assistant Sessions Judge.

(3) When there is any doubt as to who is the successor-in-office of any Magistrate, the Chief Judicial Magistrate, or the District Magistrate, as the case may be, shall determine by order in writing the Magistrate who shall, for the purpose of this Code or of any proceedings or order thereunder, be deemed to be the successor-in-office of such Magistrate.

CHAPTER IV

A. Powers of Superior Officers of Police

36. Powers of superior officers of police. – Police officers superior in rank to an officer-in-charge of a police station may exercise the same powers, throughout the local area to which they are appointed, as may be exercised by such officer within the limits of his station.

B. Aid To The Magistrates And The Police

37. Public when to assist Magistrates and police. – Every person is bound to assist a Magistrate or police officer reasonably demanding his aid –

(a) in the taking or preventing the escape of any other person whom such Magistrate or police officer is authorised to arrest; or

(b) in the prevention or suppression of a breach of the peace; or

(c) in the prevention of any injury attempted to be committed to any railway, canal, telegraph or public property.

38. Aid to person, other than police officer, executing warrant. – When a warrant is directed to a person other than a police officer, any other person may aid in the execution of such warrant, if the person to whom the warrant is directed be near at hand and acting in the execution of the warrant.

39. Public to give information of certain offences. – (1) Every person aware of the commission of, or of the intention of any other person to commit, any offence punishable under any of the following sections of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), namely –

(i) Sections 121 to 126, both inclusive, and section 130 (that is to say, offences against the State specified in Chapter VI of the said Code);

(ii) Sections 143, 144, 145, 147 and 148 (that is to say, offences against the public tranquillity specified in Chapter VIII of the said Code);

(iii) Sections 161 to 165-A, both inclusive (that is to say, offences relating to illegal gratification);

(iv) Sections 272 to 278 both inclusive (that is to say, offences relating to adulteration of food and drugs, etc.),

(v) Sections 302, 303 and 304 (that is to say, offences affecting life);

[(va) Section 364A (that is to say, offence relating to kidnapping for ransom, etc.);]

(vi) Section 382 (that is to say, offence of theft after preparation made for causing death, hurt or restraint in order to the committing of the theft);

(vii) Sections 392 to 399, both inclusive, and section 402 (that is to say, offences of robbery and dacoity);

(viii) Section 409 (that is to say, offence relating to criminal breach of trust by public servant, etc.);

(ix) Sections 431 to 439, both inclusive (that is to say, offences of mischief against property);

(x) Sections 449 and 450 (that is to say, offences of house-trespass);

(xi) Sections 456 to 460, both inclusive (that is to say, offences of lurking house-trespass); and

(xii) Sections 489-A to 489-E, both inclusive (that is to say, offences relating to currency notes and bank notes), shall in the absence of any reasonable excuse, the burden of proving which excuse shall lie upon the person so aware, forthwith give information to the nearest Magistrate or police officer of such commission or intention.

(2) For the purposes of this section, the term “offence” includes any act committed at any place out of India which would constitute an offence if committed in India.

40. Duty of officers employed in connection with the affairs of a village to make certain report. – (1) Every officer employed in connection with the affairs of a village and every person residing in a village shall forthwith communicate to the nearest Magistrate or to the officer-in-charge of the nearest police station, whichever is nearer, any information which he may possess respecting –

(a) the permanent or temporary residence of any notorious receiver or vendor of stolen property in or near such village;

(b) the resort to any place within, or the passage through, such village of any person whom he knows, or reasonably suspects, to be a thug, robber, escaped convict or proclaimed offender;

(c) the commission of, or intention to commit, in or near such village any non-bailable offence or any offence punishable under section 143, section 144, section 145, section 147 or section 148 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860);

(d) the occurrence in or near such village of any sudden or unnatural death or of any death under suspicious circumstances or the discovery in or near such village of any corpse or part of a corpse, in circumstances which lead to a reasonable suspicion that such a death has occurred or the disappearance from such village of any person in circumstances which lead to a reasonable suspicion that a non-bailable offence has been committed in respect of such person;

(e) the commission of, or intention to commit, at any place out of India near such village any act which, if committed in India, would be an offence punishable under any of the following sections of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), namely, 231 to 238 (both inclusive), 302, 304, 382 to 399 (both inclusive), 402, 435, 436, 449, 450, 457 to 460 (both inclusive), 489-A, 489-B, 489-C and 489-D;

(f) any matter likely to affect the maintenance of order or the prevention of crime or the safety of person or property respecting which the District Magistrate, by general or special order made with the previous sanction of the State Government, has directed him to communicate information.

(2) In this section,

(i) “village” includes village-lands;

(ii) the expression “proclaimed offender” includes any person proclaimed as an offender by any Court or authority in any territory in India to which this Code does not extend, in respect of any act which if committed in the territories to which this Code extends, would be an offence punishable under any of the following sections of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), namely, 302, 304, 382, 392 to 399 (both inclusive), 402, 435, 436, 449, 450 and 457 to 460 (both inclusive);

(iii) the words “officer employed in connection with the affairs of the village” means a member of the panchayat of the village and includes the headman and every officer or other person appointed to perform any function connected with the administration of the village.

CHAPTER V

Arrest Of Persons

41. When police may arrest without warrant. – (1) Any police officer may without an order from a Magistrate and without a warrant, arrest any person –

[(a) who commits, in the presence of a police office, a cognisable offence;

(b) against whom a reasonable complaint has been made, or credible information has been received, or a reasonable suspicion exists that he has committed a cognisable offence punishable with imprisonment for a term which may be less than seven years or which may extend to seven years whether with or without fine, if the following conditions are satisfied, namely :-

(i) the police has reason to believe on the basis of such complaint, information, or suspicion that such person has committed the said offence;

(ii) the police officer is satisfied that such arrest is necessary –

(a) to prevent such person from committing any further offence; or

(b) for proper investigation of the offence; or

(c) to prevent such person from causing the evidence of the offence to disappear or tampering with such evidence in any manner; or

(d) to prevent such person from making any inducement, threat or promise to any person acquainted with the facts of the case so as to dissuade him from disclosing such facts to the Court or to the police officer;or

(e) as unless such person is arrested, his presence in the Court whenever required cannot be ensured and the police officer shall record while making such arrest, his reason in writing;

[Provided that a police officer shall, in all the cases where the arrest of a person is not required under the provision of this sub-section, record the reasons in writing for not making the arrest.]

(ba) against whom credible information has been received that he has committed a cognisable offence punishable with imprisonment far a term which may extend to more than seven years whether with or without fine or with death sentence and the police officer has reason to believe on the basis of that information that such person has committed the said offence;]

(c) who has been proclaimed as an offender either under this Code or by order of the State Government; or

(d) in whose possession anything is found which may reasonably be suspected to be stolen property and who may reasonably be suspected of having committed an offence with reference to such thing; or

(e) who obstructs a police officer while in the execution of his duty, or who has escaped, or attempts to escape, from lawful custody; or

(f) who is reasonably suspected of being a deserter from any of the Armed Forces of the Union; or –

(g) who has been concerned in, or against whom reasonable complaint has been made, or credible information has been received, or a reasonable suspicion exists, of his having been concerned in, any act committed at any place out of India which if committed in India, would have been punishable as an offence, and for which he is, under any law relating to extradition, or otherwise, liable to be apprehended or detained in custody in India; or

(h) who, being a released convict, commits a breach of any rule, made under sub-section (5) of section 356; or

(i) for whose arrest any requisition, whether written or oral, has been received from another police officer, provided that the requisition specifies the person to be arrested and the offence or other cause for which the arrest is to be made and it appears therefrom that the person might lawfully be arrested without a warrant by the officer who issued the requisition.

[(2) Subject to the provisions of Section 42, no person concerned in a non-cognisable offence or against whom a complaint has been made or credible information has been received or reasonable suspicion exists of his having so concerned, shall be arrested accept under a warrant or order of a Magistrate.]

[41A. Notice of appearance before police officer – (1) [The police officer shall], in all cases where the arrest of a person is not required under the provisions of sub-section (1) of Section 41, issue a notice directing the person against whom a reasonable complaint has been made, or credible information has been received, or a reasonable suspicion exists that he has committed a cognisable offence, to appear before him or at such other place as may be specified in the notice.

(2) Where such a notice is issued to any person, it shall be the duty of that person to comply with the terms of the notice.

(3) Where such person complies and continues to comply with the notice, he shall not be arrested in respect of the offence referred to in the notice unless, for reasons to be recorded, the police officer is of the opinion that he ought to be arrested.

[(4) Where such person, at any time, fails to comply with the terms of the notice or is unwilling to identify himself, the police officer may, subject to such orders as may have been passed by a competent Court in this behalf, arrest him for the offence mentioned in the notice.]

41B. Procedure of arrest and duties of officer making arrest. – Every police office while making an arrest shall –

(a) bear an accurate, visible and clear identification of his name which will facilitate easy identification;

(b) prepare a memorandum of arrest which shall be –

(i) attested by at least one witness, who is a member of the family of the person arrested or a respectable member of the locality where the arrest is made;

(ii) counter-signed by the person arrested; and

(c) inform the person arrested, unless the memorandum is attested by a member of his family that he has a right to have a relative or a friend named by him to be informed of his arrest.

41C. Control room at district. – (1) The State Government shall establish a police control room –

(a) in every district; and

(b) at State level.

(2) The State Government shall cause to be displayed on the notice board kept outside the control rooms at every district, the names and addresses of the persons arrested and the name and designation of the police officers who made the arrests.

(3) The control room at the Police Headquarters at the State level shall collect from time to time, details about the persons arrested, nature of the offence with which they are charged and maintain a database for the information of the general public.

41D. Right of arrested person to meet an advocate of his choice during interrogation – When any person is arrested and interrogated by the police, he shall be entitled to meet an Advocate of his choice during interrogation, though not throughout interrogation.]

42. Arrest on refusal to give name and residence. – (1) When any person who, in the presence of a police officer, has committed or has been accused of committing a non-cognisable offence refuses, on demand of such officer, to give his name and residence or gives a name or residence which such officer has reason to believe to be false, he may be arrested by such officer in order that his name or residence may be ascertained.

(2) When the true name and residence of such person have been ascertained, he shall be released on his executing a bond, with or without sureties, to appear before a Magistrate if so required :

Provided that, if such person is not resident in India, the bond shall be secured by a surety or sureties resident in India.

(3) Should the true name and residence of such person not be ascertained within twenty-four hours from the time of arrest or should he fail to execute the bond, or, if so required, to furnish sufficient sureties, he shall forthwith be forwarded to the nearest Magistrate having jurisdiction.

43. Arrest by private person and procedure on such arrest. – (1) Any private person may arrest or cause to be arrested any person who in his presence commits a non-bailable and cognisable offence, or any proclaimed offender, and, without unnecessary delay, shall make over or cause to be made over any person so arrested to a police officer, or in the absence of a police officer, take such person or cause him to be taken in custody to the nearest police station.

(2) If there is reason to believe that such person comes under the provisions of section 41, a police officer shall re-arrest him.

(3) If there is reason to believe that he has committed a non-cognisable offence, and he refuses on the demand of a police officer to give his name and residence, or gives a name or residence which such officer has reason to believe to be false, he shall be dealt with under the provisions of section 42; but if there is no sufficient reason to believe that he has committed any offence, he shall be at once released.

44. Arrest by Magistrate. – (1) When any offence is committed in the presence of a Magistrate, whether Executive or Judicial, within his local jurisdiction, he may himself arrest or order any person to arrest the offender and may thereupon, subject to the provisions herein contained as to bail, commit the offender to custody.

(2) Any Magistrate, whether Executive or Judicial, may at any time arrest or direct the arrest, in his presence, within his local jurisdiction, of any person for whose arrest he is competent at the time and in the circumstances to issue a warrant.

45. Protection of members of the Armed Forces from arrest. – (1) Notwithstanding anything contained in sections 41 to 44 (both inclusive), no member of the Armed Forces of the Union shall be arrested for anything done or purported to be done by him in the discharge of his official duties except after obtaining the consent of the Central Government.

(2) The State Government may, by notification, direct that the provisions of sub-section (1) shall apply to such class or category of the members of the Force charged with the maintenance of public Order as may be specified therein, wherever they may be serving, and thereupon the provisions of that sub-section shall apply as if for the expression “Central Government” occurring therein, the expression “State Government” were substituted.

46. Arrest how made. – (1) In making an arrest the police officer or other person making the same shall actually touch or confine the body of the person to be arrested, unless there be a submission to the custody by word or action.

[Provided that where a woman is to be arrested, unless the circumstances indicate to the contrary, her submission to custody on an oral intimation of arrest shall be presumed and unless the circumstances otherwise require or unless the police officer is a female, the police officer shall not touch the person of the woman for making her arrest.]

(2) If such person forcibly resists the endeavour to arrest him, or attempts to evade the arrest, such police officer or other person may use all means necessary to effect the arrest.

(3) Nothing in this section gives a right to cause the death of a person who is not accused of an offence punishable with death or with imprisonment for life.

[(4) Save in exceptional circumstances, no woman shall be arrested after sunset and before sunrise, and where such exceptional circumstances exist, the woman police officer shall, by making a written report, obtain the prior permission of the Judicial Magistrate of the first class within whose local jurisdiction the offence is committed or the arrest is to be made.]

47. Search of place entered by person sought to be arrested. – (1) If any person acting under a warrant of arrest, or any police officer having authority to arrest, has reason to believe that the person to be arrested has entered into, or is within, any place, any person residing in, or being in charge of such place shall, on demand of such person acting as aforesaid or such police officer, allow him free ingress thereto, and afford all reasonable facilities for a search therein.

(2) If ingress to such place cannot be obtained under sub-section (1), it shall be lawful in any case for a person acting under a warrant and in any case in which a warrant may issue, but cannot be obtained without affording the person to be arrested an opportunity of escape, for a police officer to enter such place and search therein, and in order to effect an entrance into such place, to break open any outer or inner door or window of any house or place, whether that of the person to be arrested or of any other person, if after notification of his authority and purpose, and demand of admittance duly made, he cannot otherwise obtain admittance :

Provided that, if any such place is an apartment in the actual occupancy of a female (not being the person to be arrested) who, according to custom, does not appear in public, such person or police officer shall, before entering such apartment, give notice to such female that she is at liberty to withdraw and shall afford her every reasonable facility for withdrawing, and may then break open the apartment and enter it.

(3) Any police officer or other person authorised to make an arrest may break open any outer or inner door or window of any house or place in order to liberate himself or any other person who, having lawfully entered for the purpose of making an arrest, is detained therein. .

48. Pursuit of offenders into other jurisdictions. – A police officer may, for the purpose of arresting without warrant any person whom he is authorised to arrest, pursue such person into any place in India.

49. No unnecessary restraint. – The person arrested shall not be subjected to more restraint than is necessary to prevent his escape.

50. Person arrested to be informed of grounds of arrest and of right to bail. – (1) Every police officer or other person arresting any person without warrant shall forthwith communicate to him full particulars of the offence for which he is arrested or other grounds for such arrest.

(2) Where a police officer arrests without warrant any person other than a person accused of a non-bailable offence, he shall inform the person arrested that he is entitled to be released on bail and that he may arrange for sureties on his behalf.

[50A. Obligation of person making arrest to inform about the arrest, etc., to a nominated person. – (1) Every police officer or other person making any arrest under this Code shall forthwith give the information regarding such arrest and place where the arrested person is being held to any of his friends, relatives or such other persons as may be disclosed or nominated by the arrested person for the purpose of giving such information.

(2) The police officer shall inform the arrested person of his rights under sub-Section (1) as soon as he is brought to the police station.

(3) An entry of the fact as to who has been informed of the arrest of such person shall be made in a book to be kept in the police station in such form as may be prescribed in this behalf by the State Government.

(4) It shall be the duty of the Magistrate before whom such arrested person is produced, to satisfy himself that the requirements of sub-Section (2) and sub-Section (3) have been complied with in respect of such arrested person.]

51. Search of arrested person. – (1) Whenever a person is arrested by a police officer under a warrant which does not provide for the taking of bail, or under a warrant which provides for the taking of bail but the person arrested cannot furnish bail, and whenever a person is arrested without warrant, or by a private person under a warrant, and cannot legally be admitted to bail, or is unable to furnish bail, the officer making the arrest or, when the arrest is made by a private person, the police officer to whom he makes over the person arrested, may search such person, and place in safe custody all articles, other than necessary wearing-apparel found upon him and where any article is seized from the arrested person, a receipt showing the article taken in possession by the police officer shall be given to such person.

(2) Whenever it is necessary to cause a female to be searched, the search shall be made by another female with strict regard to decency.

52. Power to seize offensive weapons. – The officer or other person making any arrest under this Code may take from the person arrested any offensive weapons which he has about his person, and shall deliver all weapons so taken to the Court or officer before which or whom the officer or person making the arrest is required by this Code to produce the person arrested.

53. Examination of accused by medical practitioner at the request of police officer. – (1) When a person is arrested on a charge of committing an offence of such a nature and alleged to have been committed under such circumstances that there are reasonable grounds for believing that an examination of his person will afford evidence as to the commission of an offence, it shall be lawful for a registered medical practitioner, acting at the request of a police officer not below the rank of sub-Inspector, and for any person acting in good faith in his aid and under his direction, to make such an examination of the person arrested as is reasonably necessary in order to ascertain the facts which may afford such evidence, and to use such force as is reasonably necessary for that purpose.

(2) Whenever the person of a female is to be examined under this section, the examination shall be made only by, or under the supervision of, a female registered medical practitioner.

[Explanation. – In this Section and in Section 53-A and 54 –

(a) “examination” shall include the examination of blood, blood-stains, semen, swabs in case of sexual offences, sputum and sweat, hair samples and finger nail clipping by the use of modern and scientific techniques including DNA profiling and such other tests which the registered medical practitioner thinks necessary in a particular case;

(b) “registered medical practitioner” means a medical practitioner who possesses any medical qualification as defined in clause (h) of Section 2 of the Indian Medical Council Act, 1956 (102 of 1956) and whose name has been entered in a State Medical Register.]

[53A. Examination of person accused of rape by medical practitioner. – (1) When a person is arrested on a charge of committing an offence of rape or an attempt to commit rape and there are reasonable grounds for believing that an examination of his person will afford evidence as to the commission of such offence, it shall be lawful for a registered medical petitioner employed in a hospital run by the government or by the local authority and in the absence of such a petitioner within the radius of sixteen km. from the place where the offence has been committed, by any other registered medical practitioner acting at the request of a police officers not below the rank of a sub-inspector, and for any person acting in good faith in his aid and under his direction, to make such and examination of the arrested person and to use such force as is reasonably necessary for that purpose.

(2) The registered medical petitioner conducting such examination shall, without delay, examine such person and prepare a report of his examination giving the following particular namely :-

(i) the name and address of the accused and of the person by whom he was brought,

(ii) the age of the accused,

(iii) marks of injury, if any, on the person of the accused,

(iv) the description of material taken from the person of the accused for DNA profiling, and

(v) other material particulars in reasonable detail.

(3) The report shall state precisely the reason for each conclusion arrived at.

(4) The exact time of commencement and completion of the examination shall also be noted in the report.

(5) The registered medical practitioner shall, without delay, forward the report of the investigating officer, who shall forward it to the Magistrate referred to in Section 173 as part of the documents referred to in clause (a) of sub-Section (5) of that section.]

[54. Examination of arrested person by medical officer. – (1) When any person is arrested, he shall be examined by a medical officer in the service of Central or State Governments and in case the medical officer is not available by a registered medical petitioner soon after the arrest is made :

Provided that where the arrested person is a female, the examination of the body shall be made only by or under the supervision of a female medical officer, and in case the female medical officer is not available, by a female registered medical practitioner.

(2) The medical officer or a registered medical practitioner so examining the arrested person shall prepare record of such examination, mentioning therein any injuries or marks of violence upon the persons arrested, and the approximate time when such injuries or marks may have been inflicted.

(3) Where an examination is made under sub-section (1) a copy of the report of such examination shall be furnished by the medical officer or registered medical practitioner, as the case may be, to the arrested person of the person nominated by such arrested person.]

[54A. Identification of person arrested – Where a person is arrested on a charge of committing an offence and his identification by any other person or persons is considered necessary for the purpose of investigation of such offence, the Court, having jurisdiction may, on the request of the officer in charge of a police station, direct the person so arrested to subject himself to identification by any person or persons in such manner as the Court may deem fit.]

[Provided that, if the person identifying the person arrested is mentally or physically disabled, such process of identification shall take place under the supervision of a Judicial Magistrate who shall take appropriate steps to ensure that such person identifies the person arrested using methods that person is comfortable with:

Provided further that if the person identifying the person arrested is mentally or physically disabled, the identification process shall be video-graphed.]

55. Procedure when police officer deputes subordinate to arrest without warrant. – (1) When any officer-in-charge of a police station or any police officer making an investigation under Chapter XII requires any officer subordinate to him to arrest without a warrant (otherwise than in his presence) any person who may lawfully be arrested without a warrant, he shall deliver to the officer required to make the arrest an order in writing, specifying the person to be arrested and the offence or other cause for which the arrest is to be made and the officer so required shall, before making the arrest, notify to the person to be arrested the substance of the order and, if so required by such person, shall show him the order.

(2) Nothing in sub-section (1) shall affect the power of a police officer to arrest a person under section 41.

[55A. Health and safety of arrested person – It shall be the duty of the person having the custody of an accused to take reasonable care of the health and safety of the accused.]

56. Person arrested to be taken before Magistrate or officer-in-charge of police station. – A police officer making an arrest without warrant shall, without unnecessary delay and subject to the provisions herein contained as to bail, take or send the person arrested before a Magistrate having jurisdiction in the case, or before the officer-in-charge of a police station.

57. Person arrested not to be detained more than twenty-four hours. – No police officer shall detain in custody a person arrested without warrant for a longer period than under all the circumstances of the case is reasonable, and such period shall not, in the absence of a special order of a Magistrate under section 167, exceed twenty-four hours exclusive of the time necessary for the journey from the place of arrest to the Magistrate’s Court.

58. Police to report apprehensions. – Officers-in-charge of police stations shall report to the District Magistrate, or, if he so directs, to the Sub-Divisional Magistrate, the cases of all persons arrested without warrant, within the limits of their respective stations, whether such persons have been admitted to bail or otherwise.

59. Discharge of person apprehended. – No person who has been arrested by a police officer shall be discharged except on his own bond, or on bail, or under the special order of a Magistrate.

60. Power, on escape, to pursue and re-take. – (1) If a person in lawful custody escapes or is rescued, the person from whose custody he escaped or was rescued may immediately pursue and arrest him in any place in India.

(2) The provisions of section 47 shall apply to arrests under sub-section (1) although the person making any such arrest is not acting under a warrant and is not a police officer having authority to arrest.

[60A. Arrest to be made strictly according to the Code – No arrest shall be made except in accordance with the provisions of this Code or any other law for the time being in force providing for arrest.]

CHAPTER VI

Process To Compel Appearance

A. Summons

61. Forms of summons. – Every summons issued by a Court under this Code shall be in writing, in duplicate, signed by the presiding officer of such Court or by such other officer as the High Court may, from time to time, by rule direct, and shall bear the seal of the Court.

62. Summons how served. – (1) Every summons shall be served by a police officer, or subject to such rules as the State Government may make in this behalf, by an officer of the court issuing it or other public servant.

(2) The summons shall, if practicable, be served personally on the person summoned, by delivering or tendering to him one of the duplicates of the summons.

(3) Every person on whom a summons is so served shall, if so required by the serving officer, sign a receipt therefor on the back of the other duplicate.

63. Service of summons on corporate bodies and societies. – Service of a summons on a corporation may be effected by serving it on the secretary, local manager or other principal officer of the corporation, or by letter sent by registered post, addressed to the chief officer of the corporation in India, in which case the service shall be deemed to have been effected when the letter would arrive in ordinary course of post.

Explanation. – In this section, “corporation” means an incorporated company or other body corporate and includes a society registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 (21 of 1860).

64. Service when persons summoned cannot be found. – Where the person summoned cannot, by the exercise of due diligence, be found, the summons may be served by leaving one of the duplicates for him with some adult male member of his family residing with him, and the person with whom the summons is so left shall, if so required by the serving officer, sign a receipt therefor on the back of the other duplicate.

Explanation. – A servant is not a member of the family within the meaning of this section.

65. Procedure when service cannot be effected as before provided. – If service cannot by the exercise of due diligence be effected as provided in section 62, section 63 or section 64, the serving officer shall affix one of the duplicates of the summons to some conspicuous part of the house or homestead in which the person summoned ordinarily resides; and thereupon the Court, after making such inquiries as it thinks fit, may either declare that the summons has been duly served or order fresh service in such manner as it considers proper.

66. Service on Government Servant. – (1) Where the person summoned is in the active service of the Government, the Court issuing the summons shall ordinarily send it in duplicate to the head of the office in which such person is employed; and such head shall thereupon cause the summons to be served in the manner provided by section 62, and shall return it to the Court under his signature with the endorsement required by that section.

(2) Such signature shall be evidence of due service.

67. Service of summons outside local limits. – When a Court desires that a summons issued by it shall be served at any place outside its local jurisdiction, it shall ordinarily send such summons in duplicate to a Magistrate within whose local jurisdiction the person summoned resides, or is, to be there served.

68. Proof of service in such cases and when serving officer not present. – (1) When a summons issued by a Court is served outside its local jurisdiction, and in any case where the officer who has served a summons is not present at the hearing of the case, an affidavit, purporting to be made before a Magistrate, that such summons has been served, and a duplicate of the summons purporting to be endorsed (in the manner provided by section 62 or section 64) by the person to whom it was delivered or tendered or with whom it was left, shall be admissible in evidence, and the statements made therein shall be deemed to be correct unless and until the contrary is proved.

(2) The affidavit mentioned in this section may be attached to the duplicate of the summons and returned to the Court.

69. Service of summons on witness by post. – (1) Notwithstanding anything contained in the preceding sections of this Chapter, a Court issuing a summons to a witness may, in addition to and simultaneously with the issue of such summons, direct a copy of the summons to be served by registered post addressed to the witness at the place where he ordinarily resides or carries on business or personally works for gain.

(2) When an acknowledgement purporting to be signed by the witness or an endorsement purporting to be made by a postal employee that the witness refused to take delivery of the summons has been received, the Court issuing the summons may declare that the summons has been duly served.

B. Warrant of arrest

70. Form of warrant of arrest and duration. – (1) Every warrant of arrest issued by a Court under this Code shall be in writing, signed by the presiding officer of such Court and shall bear the seal of the Court.

(2) Every such warrant shall remain in force until it is cancelled by the Court which issued it, or until it is executed.

71. Power to direct security to be taken. – (1) Any Court issuing a warrant for the arrest of any person may in its discretion direct by endorsement on the warrant that, if such person executes a bond with sufficient sureties for his attendance before the Court at a specified time and thereafter until otherwise directed by Court, the officer to whom the warrant is directed shall take such security and shall release such person from custody.

(2) The endorsement shall state –

(a) the number of sureties;

(b) the amount in which they and the person for whose arrest the warrant is issued, are to be respectively bound;

(c) the time at which he is to attend before the Court.

(3) Whenever security is taken under this section, the officer to whom the warrant is directed shall forward the bond to the Court.

72. Warrant to whom directed. – (1) A warrant of arrest shall ordinarily be directed to one or more police officers; but the Court issuing such a warrant may, if its immediate execution is necessary and no police officer is immediately available, direct it to any other person or persons, and such person or persons shall execute the same.

(2) When a warrant is directed to more officers or persons than one, it may be executed by all, or by any one or more of them.

73. Warrant may be directed to any person. – (1) The Chief Judicial Magistrate or a Magistrate of the first class may direct a warrant to any person within his local jurisdiction for the arrest of any escaped convict, proclaimed offender or of any person who is accused of a non-bailable offence and is evading arrest.

(2) Such person shall acknowledge in writing the receipt of the warrant, and shall execute it if the person for whose arrest it was issued, is in, or enters on, any land or other property under his charge.

(3) When the person against whom such warrant is issued is arrested, he shall be made over with the warrant to the nearest police officer, who shall cause him to be taken before a Magistrate having jurisdiction in the case, unless security is taken under section 71.

74. Warrant directed to police officer. – A warrant directed to any police officer may also be executed by any other police officer whose name is endorsed upon the warrant by the officer to whom it is directed or endorsed.

75. Notification of substance of warrant. – The police officer or other person executing a warrant of arrest shall notify the substance thereof to the person to be arrested, and, if so required, shall show him the warrant.

76. Person arrested to be brought before Court without delay. – The police officer or other person executing a warrant of arrest shall (subject to the provisions of section 71 as to security) without unnecessary delay bring the person arrested before the Court before which he is required by law to produce such person :

Provided that such delay shall not, in any case, exceed twenty-four hours exclusive of the time necessary for the journey from the place of arrest to the Magistrate’s Court.

77. Where warrant may be executed. – A warrant of arrest may be executed at any place in India.

78. Warrant forwarded for execution outside jurisdiction. – When a warrant is to be executed outside the local jurisdiction of the Court issuing it, such Court may, instead of directing the warrant to a police officer within its jurisdiction, forward it by post or otherwise to any Executive Magistrate or District Superintendent of Police or Commissioner of Police within the local limits of whose jurisdiction it is to be executed; and the Executive Magistrate or District Superintendent or Commissioner shall endorse his name thereon, and if practicable, cause it to be executed in the manner hereinbefore provided.

(2) The Court issuing a warrant under sub-section (1) shall forward, along with the warrant, the substance of the information against the person to be arrested together with such documents, if any, as may be sufficient to enable the Court acting under section 81 to decide whether bail should or should not be granted to the person.

79. Warrant directed to police officer for execution outside jurisdiction. – (1) When a warrant directed to a police officer is to be executed beyond the local jurisdiction of the Court issuing the same, he shall ordinarily take it for endorsement either to an Executive Magistrate or to a police officer not below the rank of an officer-in-charge of a police station, within the local limits of whose jurisdiction the warrant is to be executed.

(2) Such Magistrate or police officer shall endorse his name thereon and such endorsement shall be sufficient authority to the police officer to whom the warrant is directed to execute the same, and the local police shall, if so required, assist such officer in executing such warrant.

(3) Whenever there is reason to believe that the delay occasioned by obtaining the endorsement of the Magistrate or police officer within whose local jurisdiction the warrant is to be executed will prevent such execution, the police officer whom it is directed may execute the same without such endorsement in any place beyond the local jurisdiction of the Court which issued it.

80. Procedure of arrest of person against whom warrant issued. – When a warrant of arrest is executed outside the district in which it was issued, the person arrested shall, unless the Court which issued the warrant is within thirty kilometres of the place of arrest or nearer than the Executive Magistrate or District Superintendent of Police or Commissioner of Police within the local limits of whose jurisdiction the arrest was made, or unless security is taken under section 71, be taken before such Magistrate or District Superintendent or Commissioner.

81. Procedure by Magistrate before whom such person arrested is brought. – (1) The Executive Magistrate or District Superintendent of Police or Commissioner of Police shall, if the person arrested appears to be the person intended by the Court which issued the warrant, direct his removal in custody to such Court :

Provided that if the offence is bailable, and such person is ready and willing to give bail to the satisfaction of such Magistrate, District Superintendent or Commissioner, or a direction has been endorsed under section 71 on the warrant and such person is ready and willing to give the security required by such direction, the Magistrate, District Superintendent or Commissioner shall take such bail or security, as the case may be, and forward the bond, to the Court which issued the warrant :

Provided further that if the offence is a non-bailable one, it shall be lawful for the Chief Judicial Magistrate (subject to the provisions of section 437), or the Sessions Judge, of the district in which the arrest is made on consideration of the information and documents referred to in sub-section (2) of section 78, to release such person on bail.

(2) Nothing in this section shall be deemed to prevent a police officer from taking security under section 71.

C. Proclamation and attachment

82. Proclamation for person absconding. – (1) If any Court has reason to believe (whether after taking evidence or not) that any person against whom a warrant has been issued by it has absconded or is concealing himself so that such warrant cannot be executed, such Court may publish a written proclamation requiring him to appear at a specified place and at a specified time not less than thirty days from the date of publishing such proclamation.

(2) The proclamation shall be published as follows :-

(i)(a) it shall be publicly read in some conspicuous place of the town or village in which such person ordinarily resides;

(b) it shall be affixed to some conspicuous part of the house or homestead in which such person ordinarily resides or to some conspicuous place of such town or village;

(c) a copy thereof shall be affixed to some conspicuous part of the court-house;

(ii) the Court may also, if it thinks fit, direct a copy of the proclamation to be published in a daily newspaper circulating in the place in which such person ordinarily resides.

(3) A statement in writing by the Court issuing the proclamation to the effect that the proclamation was duly published on a specified day, in the manner specified in clause (i) of sub-section (2), shall be conclusive evidence that the requirements of this Section have been complied with, and that the proclamation was published on such day.

[(4) Where a proclamation published under sub-section (1) is in respect of a person accused of an offence punishable under Sections 302, 304, 364, 367, 382, 392, 393, 394, 395, 396, 397, 398, 399, 400, 402, 436, 449, 459, or 460 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), and such person fails to appear at the specified place and time required by the proclamation, the Court may, after making such inquiry as it thinks fit, pronounce him a proclaimed offender and make a declaration to that effect.

(5) The provisions of sub-sections (2) and (3) shall apply to a declaration made by the Court under sub-section (4) as they apply to the proclamation published under sub-section (1).]

83. Attachment of property of person absconding. – (1) The Court issuing a proclamation under section 82 may, for reasons to be recorded in writing, at any time after the issue of the proclamation, order the attachment of any property, movable or immovable, or both, belonging to the proclaimed person :

Provided that where at the time of the issue of the proclamation the Court is satisfied, by affidavit or otherwise, that the person in relation to whom the proclamation is to be issued, –

(a) is about to dispose of the whole or any part of his property, or

(b) is about to remove the whole or any part of his property from the local jurisdiction of the Court, it may order the attachment simultaneously with the issue of the proclamation.

(2) Such order shall authorise the attachment of any property belonging to such person within the district in which it is made; and it shall authorise the attachment of any property belonging to such person without such district when endorsed by the District Magistrate within whose district such property is situate.

(3) If the property ordered to be attached is a debt or other movable property, the attachment under this section shall be made –

(a) by seizure; or

(b) by the appointment of a receiver; or –

(c) by an order in writing prohibiting the delivery of such property to the proclaimed person or to any one on his behalf; or

(d) by all or any two of such methods, as the Court thinks fit.

(4) If the property ordered to be attached is immovable, the attachment under this section shall, in the case of land paying revenue to the State Government, be made through the Collector of the district in which the land is situate, and in all other cases-

(a) by taking possession; or

(b) by the appointment of a receiver; or

(c) by an order in writing prohibiting the payment of rent on delivery of such property to the proclaimed person or to any one on his behalf; or

(d) by all or any two of such methods, as the Court thinks fit.

(5) If the property ordered to be attached consists of live-stock or is of a perishable nature, the Court may, if it thinks it expedient, order immediate sale thereof, and in such case the proceeds of the sale shall abide the order of the Court.

(6) The powers, duties and liabilities of a receiver appointed under this section shall be the same as those of a receiver appointed under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908).

84. Claims and objections to attachment. – (1) If any claim is preferred to, or objection made to the attachment of, any property attached under section 83, within six months from the date of such attachment, by any person other than the proclaimed person, on the ground that the claimant or objector has an interest in such property, and that such interest is not liable to attachment under section 83, the claim or objection shall be inquired into, and may be allowed or disallowed in whole or in part :

Provided that any claim preferred or objection made within the period allowed by this sub-section may, in the event of the death of the claimant or objector, be continued by his legal representative.

(2) Claims or objections under sub-section (1) may be preferred or made in the Court by which the order of attachment is issued, or, if the claim or objection is in respect of property attached under an order endorsed under sub-section (2) of section 83, in the Court of the Chief Judicial Magistrate of the district in which the attachment is made.

(3) Every such claim or objection shall be inquired into by the Court in which it is preferred or made :

Provided that, if it is preferred or made in the Court of a Chief Judicial Magistrate, he may make it over for disposal to any Magistrate subordinate to him.

(4) Any person whose claim or objection has been disallowed in whole or in part by an order under sub-section (1) may, within a period of one year from the date of such order, institute a suit to establish the right which he claims in respect of the property in dispute; but subject to the result of such suit, if any, the order shall be conclusive.

85. Release, sale and restoration of attached property. – (1) If the proclaimed person appears within the time specified in the proclamation, the Court shall make an order releasing the property from the attachment.

(2) If the proclaimed person does not appear within the time specified in the proclamation, the property under the attachment shall be at the disposal of the State Government; but it shall not be sold until the expiration of six months from the date of the attachment and until any claim preferred or objection made under section 84 has been disposed of under that section, unless it is subject to speedy and natural decay, or the Court considers that the sale would be for the benefit of the owner; in either of which cases the Court may cause it to be sold whenever it thinks fit.

(3) If, within two years from the date of the attachment, any person whose property is or has been at the disposal of the State Government, under sub-section (2), appears voluntarily or is apprehended and brought before the Court by whose order the property was attached, or the Court to which such Court is subordinate, and proves to the satisfaction of such Court that he did not abscond or conceal himself for the purpose of avoiding execution of the warrant, and that he had not such notice of the proclamation as to enable him to attend within the time specified therein, such property, or, if the same has been sold, the net proceeds of the sale, or, if part only thereof has been sold, the net proceeds of the sale and the residue of the property, shall, after satisfying therefrom all costs incurred in consequence of the attachment, be delivered to him.

86. Appeal from order rejecting application for restoration of attached property. – Any person referred to in sub-section (3) of section 85, who is aggrieved by any refusal to deliver property or the proceeds of the sale thereof may appeal to the Court to which appeals ordinarily lie from the sentences of first-mentioned Court.

D. Other rules regarding processes

87. Issue of warrant in lieu of, or in addition to, summons. – A Court may, in any case in which it is empowered by this Code to issue a summons for the appearance of any person, issue, after recording its reasons in writing, a warrant for his arrest –

(a) if either before the issue of such summons, or after the issue of the same but before the time fixed for his appearance, the Court has reason to believe that he has absconded or will not obey the summons;

(b) if at such time he fails to appear and the summons is proved to have been duly served in time to admit of his appearing in accordance therewith and no reasonable excuse is offered for such failure.

88. Power to take bond for appearance. – When any person for whose appearance or arrest the officer presiding in any Court is empowered to issue a summons or warrant, is present in such Court, such officer may require such person to execute a bond, with or without sureties, for his appearance in such Court, or any other Court to which the case may be transferred for trial.

89. Arrest on breach of bond for appearance. – When any person who is bound by any bond taken under this Code to appear before a Court, does not appear, the officer presiding in such Court may issue a warrant directing that such person be arrested and produced before him.

90. Provisions of this Chapter generally applicable to summonses and warrants of arrest. – The provisions contained in this Chapter relating to a summons and warrant, and their issue, service and execution, shall, so far as may be, apply to every summons and every warrant of arrest issued under this Code.

CHAPTER VII

Process To Compel The Production Of Things

A. Summons to produce

91. Summons to produce document or other thing. – (1) Whenever any Court or any officer-in-charge of a police station considers that the production of any document or other thing is necessary or desirable for the purposes of any investigation, inquiry, trial or other proceeding under this Code by or before such Court or officer, such Court may issue a summons, or such officer a written order, to the person in whose possession or power such document or thing is believed to be, requiring him to attend and produce it, or to produce it, at the time and place stated in the summons or order.

(2) Any person required under this section merely to produce a document or other thing shall be deemed to have complied with the requisition if he causes such document or thing to be produced instead of attending personally to produce the same.

(3) Nothing in this section shall be deemed –

(a) to affect sections 123 and 124 of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 (1 of 1872), or the Banker’s Books Evidence Act, 1891(13 of 1891); or

(b) to apply to a letter, postcard, telegram or other document or any parcel or thing in the custody of the postal or telegram authority.

92. Procedure as to letters and telegrams. – (1) If any document, parcel or thing in the custody of a postal or telegraph authority is, in the opinion of the District Magistrate, Chief Judicial Magistrate, Court of Session or High Court wanted for the purpose of any investigation, inquiry, trial or other proceeding under this Code, such Magistrate or Court may require the postal or telegraph authority, as the case may be, to deliver the document, parcel or thing to such person as the Magistrate or Court directs.

(2) If any such document, parcel or thing is, in the opinion of any other Magistrate, whether Executive or Judicial, or of any Commissioner of Police or District Superintendent of Police, wanted for any such purpose, he may require the postal or telegraph authority, as the case may be, to cause search to be made for and to detain such document, parcel or thing pending the order of a District Magistrate, Chief Judicial Magistrate or Court under sub-section (1).

B – Search-warrants

93. When search-warrant may be issued. – (1) (a) Where any Court has reason to believe that a person to whom a summons or order under section 91 or a requisition under sub-section (1) of Section 92 has been, or might be, addressed, will not or would not produce the document or thing as required by such summons or requisition, or

(b) where such document or thing is not known to the Court to be in the possession of any person, or

(c) where the Court considers that the purposes of any inquiry, trial or other proceeding under this Code will be served by a general search or inspection, it may issue a search-warrant; and the person to whom such warrant is directed, may search or inspect in accordance therewith and the provisions hereinafter contained.

(2) The Court may, if it thinks fit, specify in the warrant the particular place or part thereof to which only the search or inspection shall extend; and the person charged with the execution of such warrant shall then search or inspect only the place or part so specified.

(3) Nothing contained in this section shall authorise any Magistrate other than a District Magistrate or Chief Judicial Magistrate to grant a warrant to search for a document, parcel or other thing in the custody of the postal or telegraph authority.

94. Search of place suspected to contain stolen property, forged documents, etc. – (1) If a District Magistrate, Sub-Divisional Magistrate or Magistrate of the first class, upon information and after such inquiry as he thinks necessary, has reason to believe that any place is used for the deposit or sale of stolen property, or for the deposit, sale or production of any objectionable article to which this section applies, or that any such objectionable article is deposited in any place, he may by warrant authorise any police officer above the rank of a constable –

(a) to enter, with such assistance as may be required, such place,

(b) to search the same in the manner specified in the warrant,

(c) to take possession of any property or article therein found which he reasonably suspects to be stolen property or objectionable article to which this section applies,

(d) to convey such property or article before a Magistrate, or to guard the same on the spot until the offender is taken before a Magistrate, or otherwise dispose of it in some place of safety,

(e) to take into custody and carry before a Magistrate every person found in such place who appears to have been privy to the deposit, sale or production of any such property or article knowing or having reasonable cause to suspect it to be stolen property or, as the case may be, objectionable article to which this section applies.

(2) The objectionable articles to which this section applies are –

(a) counterfeit coin;

(b) pieces of metal made in contravention of the Metal Tokens Act, 1889 (1 of 1889), or brought into India in contravention of any notification for the time being in force under section 11 of the Customs Act, 1962 (52 of 1962);

(c) counterfeit currency note; counterfeit stamps;

(d) forged documents;

(e) false seals;

(f) obscene objects referred to in section 292 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860);

(g) instruments or materials used for the production of any of the articles mentioned in clauses (a) to (f).

95. Power to declare certain publications forfeited and to issue search-warrants for the same. – (1) Where –

(a) any newspaper, or book, or

(b) any document, wherever printed, appears to the State Government to contain any matter the publication of which is punishable under section 124-A or section 153-A or section 153-B or section 292 or section 293 or section 295-A of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), the State Government may, by notification, stating the grounds of its opinion, declare every copy of the issue of the newspaper containing such matter, and every copy of such book or other document to be forfeited to Government, and thereupon any police officer may seize the same wherever found in India and any Magistrate may by warrant authorise any police officer not below the rank of sub-inspector to enter upon and search for the same in any premises where any copy of such issue or any such book or other document may be or may be reasonably suspected to be.

(2) In this section and in section 96, –

(a) “newspaper” and “book” have the same meaning as in the Press and Registration of Books Act, 1867 (25 of 1867);

(b) “document” includes any painting, drawing or photograph, or other visible representation.

(3) No order passed or action taken under this section shall be called in question in any Court otherwise than in accordance with the provisions of section 96.

96. Application to High Court to set aside declaration of forfeiture. – (1) Any person having any interest in any newspaper, book or other document, in respect of which a declaration of forfeiture has been made under section 95, may, within two months from the date of publication in the official Gazette of such declaration, apply to the High Court to set aside such declaration on the ground that the issue of the newspaper, or the book or other document, in respect of which the declaration was made, did not contain any such matter as is referred to in sub-section (1) of section 95.

(2) Every such application shall, where the High Court consists of three or more Judges, be heard and determined by a Special Bench of the High Court composed of three Judges and where the High Court consists of less than three Judges, such Special Bench shall be composed of all the Judges of that High Court.

(3) On the hearing of any such application with reference to any newspaper, any copy of such newspaper may be given in evidence in aid of the proof of the nature or tendency of the words, signs or visible representations contained in such newspaper, in respect of which the declaration of forfeiture was made.

(4) The High Court shall, if it is not satisfied that the issue of the newspaper, or the book or other document, in respect of which the application has been made, contained any such matter as is referred to in sub-section (1) of section 95, set aside the declaration of forfeiture.

(5) Where there is a difference of opinion among the Judges forming the Special Bench, the decision shall be in accordance with the opinion of the majority of those Judges.

97. Search for persons wrongfully confined. – If any District Magistrate, Sub-Divisional Magistrate or Magistrate of the first class has reason to believe that any person is confined under such circumstances that the confinement amount to an offence, he may issue a search-warrant, and the persons to whom such warrant is directed may search for the person so confined; and search shall be made in accordance therewith, and the person, if found, shall be immediately taken before a Magistrate, who shall make such order as in the circumstances of the case seems proper.

98. Power to compel restoration of abducted females. – Upon complaint made on oath of the abduction or unlawful detention of a woman, or a female child under the age of eighteen years, for any unlawful purpose, a District Magistrate, Sub-Divisional Magistrate or Magistrate of the first class may make an order for the immediate restoration of such woman to her liberty, or of such female child to her husband, parent, guardian or other person having the lawful charge of such child, and may compel compliance with such order, using such force as may be necessary.

C. General provisions relating to search

99. Direction, etc. of search-warrants. – The provisions of sections 38, 70, 72, 74, 77, 78 and 79 shall, so far as may be, apply to all search warrants issued under section 93, section 94, section 95 or section 97.

100. Persons in charge of closed place to allow search. – (1) Whenever any place liable to search or inspection under this Chapter is closed, any person residing in, or being in charge of, such place, shall, on demand of the officer or other person executing the warrant, and on production of the warrant, allow him free ingress thereto, and afford all reasonable facilities for a search therein.

(2) If ingress into such place cannot be so obtained, the officer or other persons executing the warrant may proceed in the manner provided by sub-section (2) of section 47.

(3) Where any person in or about such place is reasonably suspected of concealing about his person any article for which search should be made, such person may be searched and if such person is a woman, the search shall be made by another woman with strict regard to decency.

(4) Before making a search under this Chapter, the officer or other person about to make it shall call upon two or more independent and respectable inhabitants of the locality in which the place to be searched is situate or of any other locality if no such inhabitant of the said locality is available or is willing to be a witness to the search, to attend and witness the search and may issue an order in writing to them or any of them so to do.

(5) The search shall be made in their presence, and a list of all things seized in the course of such search and of the places in which they are respectively found shall be prepared by such officer or other person and signed by such witnesses; but no person witnessing a search under this section shall be required to attend the Court as a witness of the search unless specially summoned by it.

(6) The occupant of the place searched, or some person in his behalf, shall, in every instance be permitted to attend during the search, and a copy of the list prepared under this section, signed by the said witnesses, shall be delivered to such occupant or person.

(7) When any person is searched under sub-section (3), a list of all things taken possession of shall be prepared, and a copy thereof shall be delivered to such person.

(8) Any person who, without reasonable cause, refuses or neglects to attend and witness a search under this section, when called upon to do so by an order in writing delivered or tendered to him, shall be deemed to have committed an offence under section 187 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860).

101. Disposal of things found in search beyond jurisdiction. – When, in the execution of a search-warrant at any place beyond the local jurisdiction of the Court which issued the same, any of the things for which search is made, are found, such things, together with the list of the same prepared under the provisions hereinafter contained, shall be immediately taken before the Court issuing the warrant, unless such place is nearer to the Magistrate having jurisdiction therein than to such Court, in which case the list and things shall be immediately taken before such Magistrate; and unless there be good cause to the contrary, such Magistrate shall make an order authorising them to be taken to such Court.

D. Miscellaneous

102. Power of police officer to seize certain property. – (1) Any police officer may seize any property which may be alleged or suspected to have been stolen, or which may be found under circumstances which create suspicion of the commission of any offence.

(2) Such police officer, if subordinate to the officer-in-charge of a police station, shall forthwith report the seizure to that officer.

[(3) Every police officer acting under sub-section (1) shall forthwith report the seizure to the Magistrate having jurisdiction and where the property seized is such that it cannot be conveniently transported to the Court, [or where there is difficulty in securing proper accommodation for the custody of such property, or where the continue retention of the property in police custody may not be considered necessary for the purpose of investigation], he may give custody thereof to any person on his executing a bond undertaking to produce the property before the Court as and when required and to give effect to the further orders of the Court as to the disposal of the same.]

[Provided that where the property seized under sub-section (1) is subject to speedy and natural decay and if the person entitled to the possession of such property is unknown or absent and the value of such property is less than five hundred rupees, it may forthwith be sold by auction under the orders of the Superintendent of Police and the provisions of Sections 457 and 458 shall, as nearly as may be practicable, apply to the net proceeds of such sales.]

103. Magistrate may direct search in his presence. – Any Magistrate may direct a search to be made in his presence of any place for the search of which he is competent to issue a search-warrant.

104. Power to impound document, etc., produced. – Any Court may, if it thinks fit, impound any document or thing produced before it under this Code.

105. Reciprocal arrangements regarding processes. – (1) Where a Court in the territories to which this Code extends (hereafter in this section referred to as the said territories) desires that –

(a) a summons to an accused person, or

(b) a warrant for the arrest of an accused person, or

(c) a summons to any person requiring him to attend and produce a document or other thing, or to produce it, or

(d) a search-warrant,

[issued by it shall be served or executed at any place, –

(i) within the local jurisdiction of a Court in any State or area in India outside the said territories, it may send such summons or warrant in duplicate by post or otherwise, to the presiding officer of that Court to be served or executed; and where any summons referred to in clause (a) or clause (c) has been so served, the provisions of section 68 shall apply in relation to such summons as if the presiding officer of the Court to whom it is sent were a Magistrate in the said territories;

(ii) in any country of place outside India in respect of which arrangements have been made by the Central Government with the Government of such country or place for service or execution of summons or warrant in relation to criminal matters (hereafter in this section referred to as the contracting State), it may send such summons or warrant in duplicate in such form, directed to such Court, Judge or Magistrate, and sent to such authority for transmission, as the Central Government may, by notification, specify in this behalf;]

(2) Where a Court in the said territories has received for service or execution –

(a) a summons to an accused person, or

(b) a warrant for the arrest of an accused person, or

(c) a summons to any person requiring him to attend and produce a document or other thin or to product it, or

(d) a search-warrant,

[issued by –

(i) a Court in any State or are in India outside the said territories;

(ii) a Court, Judge or Magistrate in a contracting State, it shall cause the same to be served or executed] as if it were a summons or warrant received by it from another Court in the said territories for service or execution within its local jurisdiction; and where –

(i) a warrant of arrest has been executed, the person arrested shall, so far as possible, be dealt with in accordance with the procedure prescribed by Sections 80 and 81;

(ii) a search-warrant has been executed, the things found in the search shall, so far as possible, be dealt with in accordance with the procedure prescribed by Section 101 :

[Provided that in a case where a summons or search warrant received from a contracting State has been executed, the documents or things produced or things found in the search shall he forwarded to the Court issuing the summons or search warrant through such authority as the Central Government may, by notification, specify in this behalf.]

[CHAPTER VII-A

Reciprocal Arrangements For Assistance In Certain Matters And Procedure For Attachment And Forfeiture Of Property]

105A. Definitions. – In this Chapter, unless the context otherwise requires, –

(a) “contracting State” means any country or place outside India in respect of which arrangements have been made by the Central Government with the Government of such country through a treaty or otherwise;

(b) “identifying” includes establishment of a proof that the property was derived from or used in, the commission of an offence;

(c) “proceeds of crime” means any property derived or obtained directly or indirectly, by any person as a result of criminal activity (including crime involving currency transfers) or the value of any such property;

(d) “property” means property and assets of every description whether corporeal or incorporeal, movable or immovable, tangible or intangible and deeds and instruments evidencing title to, or interest in, such property or assets derived or used in the commission of an offence and includes property obtained through proceeds of crime;

(e) “tracing” means determining the nature, source, disposition, movement, title or ownership of property.

105B. Assistance in securing transfer of persons. – (1) Where a Court in India, in relation to a criminal matter, desires that a warrant for arrest of any person to attend or produce a document or other thing issued by it shall be executed in any place in a contracting State, it shall send such warrant in duplicate in such form to Court, Judge or Magistrate through such authority, as the Central Government may, by notification, specify in this behalf and that Court, Judge or Magistrate, as the case may be, shall cause the same to be executed.

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Code, if, in the course of an investigation or any inquiry into an offence, an application is made by the investigating officer or any officer superior in rank to the investigating officer that the attendance of a person who is in any place in a contracting State is required in connection with such investigation or inquiry and the Court is satisfied that such attendance is so required, it shall issue a summons or warrant, in duplicate, against the said person to such Court, Judge or Magistrate, in such form as the Central Government may, by notification, specify in this behalf, to cause the same to be served or executed.

(3) Where a Court in India, in relation to a criminal matter, has received a warrant for arrest of any person requiring him to attend or attend and produce a document or other thing in that Court or before any other investigating agency, issued by a Court, Judge or Magistrate in a contracting State, the same shall be executed as if it is the warrant received by it from another Court in India for execution within its local limits.

(4) Where a person transferred to a contradicting State pursuant to sub-section (3) is a prisoner in India, the Court in India or the Central Government may impose such conditions as that Court or Government deems fit.

(5) Where the person transferred to India pursuant to sub-section (1) or sub-section (2) is a prisoner in a contradicting State, the Court in India shall ensure that the conditions subject to which the prisoner is transferred to India are complied with and such prisoner shall be kept in such custody subject to such conditions as the Central Government may direct in writing.

105C. Assistance in relation to orders of attachment or forfeiture of property. – (1) Where a Court in India has reasonable grounds to believe that any property obtained by any person is derived or obtained, directly or indirectly, by such person from the commission of an offence, it may make an order of attachment or forfeiture of such property, as it may deem fit under the provisions of sections 105D to 105J (both inclusive).

(2) Where the Court has made an order for attachment or forfeiture of any property under sub-section (1), and such property is suspected to be in a contracting State, the Court may issue a letter of request to a Court or an authority in the contracting State for execution of such order.

(3) Where a letter of request is received by the Central Government from a Court or an authority in a contracting State requesting attachment or forfeiture of the property in India, derived or obtained, directly or indirectly, by any person from the commission of an offence committed in that contracting State, the Central Government may forward such letter of request to the Court, as it thinks fit, for execution in accordance with the provisions of sections 105D to 105J (both inclusive) or, as the case may be, any other law for the time being in force.

105D. Identifying unlawfully acquired property. – (1) The Court shall under sub-section (1), or on receipt of a letter of request under sub-section (3) of section 105C, direct any police officer not below the rank of Sub-Inspector of Police to take all steps necessary for tracing and identifying such property.

(2) The steps referred to in sub-section (1) may include any inquiry, investigation or survey in respect of any person, place, property, assets, documents, books of account in any bank or public financial institutions or any other relevant matters.

(3) Any inquiry, investigation or survey referred to in sub-section (2) shall be carried out by an officer mentioned in sub-section (1) in accordance with such directions issued by the said Court in this behalf.

105E. Seizure or attachment of property. – (1) Where any officer conducting an inquiry or investigation under section 105D has a reason to believe that any property in relation to which such inquiry or investigation is being conducted is likely to be concealed, transferred or dealt with in any manner which will result in disposal of such property, he may make an order for seizing such property and where it is not practicable to seize such property, he may make an order of attachment directing that such property shall not be transferred or otherwise dealt with, except with the prior permission of the officer making such order, and a copy of such order shall be served on the person concerned.

(2) Any order made under sub-section (1) shall have no effect unless the said order is confirmed by an order of the said Court, within a period of thirty days of its being made.

105F. Management of properties seized or forfeited under this Chapter. – (1) The Court may appoint the District Magistrate of the area where the property is situated, or any other officer that may be nominated by the District Magistrate, to perform the functions of an Administrator of such property.

(2) The Administrator appointed under sub-section (1) shall receive and manage the property in relation to which the order has been made under sub-section (1) of section 105E or under section 105H in such manner and subject to such conditions as may be specified by the Central Government.

(3) The Administrator shall also take such measures, as the Central Government may direct, to dispose of the property which is forfeited to the Central Government.

105G. Notice of forfeiture of property. – (1) If as a result of the inquiry, investigation or survey under section 105 D, the Court has reason to believe that all or any of such properties are proceeds of crime, it may serve a notice upon such person (hereinafter referred to as the person affected) calling upon him within a period of thirty days specified in the notice to indicate the source of income, earnings or assets, out of which or by means of which he has acquired such property, the evidence on which he relies and other relevant information and particulars, and to show cause why all or any of such properties, as the case may be, should not be declared to be proceeds of crime and forfeited to the Central Government.

(2) Where a notice under sub-section (1) to any person specifies any property as being held on behalf of such person by any other person, a copy of the notice shall also be served upon such other person.

105H. Forfeiture of property in certain cases. – (1) The Court may after considering the explanation, if any, to the show-cause notice issued under section 105G and the material available before it and after giving to the person affected (and in a case where the person affected holds any property specified in the notice through any other person to such other person also) a reasonable opportunity of being heard, by order, record finding whether all or any of the properties in question are proceeds of crime:

Provided that if the person affected (and in a case where the person affected holds any property specified in the notice through any other person such other person also) does not appear before the Court or represent his case before it within a period of thirty days specified in the show-cause notice, the Court may proceed to record a finding under this sub-section ex parte on the basis of evidence available before it.

(2) Where the Court is satisfied that some of the properties referred to in the show-cause notice are proceeds of crime but it is not possible to identify specifically such properties, then, it shall be lawful for the Court to specify the properties which, to the best of its judgement, are proceeds of crime and record a finding accordingly under sub-section (1).

(3) Where the Court records a finding under this section to the effect that any property is proceeds of crime, such property shall stand forfeited to the Central Government free from all encumbrances.

(4) Where any shares in a company stand forfeited to the Central Government under this section, then, the company shall, notwithstanding anything contained in the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956) or the articles of association of the company, forthwith register the Central Government as the transferee of such shares.

105I. Fine in lieu of forfeiture. – (1) Where the Court makes a declaration that any property stands forfeited to the Central Government under section 105H and it is a case where the source of only a part of such property has not been proved to the satisfaction of the Court, it shall make an order giving an option to the person affected to pay, in lieu of forfeiture, a fine equal to the market value of such part.

(2) Before making an order imposing a fine under sub-section (1), the person affected shall be given a reasonable opportunity of being heard.

(3) Where the person affected pays the fine due under sub-section (1), within such time as may be allowed in that behalf, the Court may, by order, revoke the declaration of forfeiture under section 105H and thereupon such property shall stand released.

105J. Certain transfers to be null and void. – Where after the making of an order under sub-section (1) of section 105E or the issue of a notice under section 105G, any property referred to in the said order or notice is transferred by any mode whatsoever such transfers shall, for the purposes of the proceedings under this Chapter, be ignored and if such property is subsequently forfeited to the Central Government under section 105 H, then, the transfer of such property shall be deemed to be null and void.

105K. Procedure in respect of letter of request. – Every letter of request, summons or warrant, received by the Central Government from, and every letter of request, summons or warrant, to be transmitted to a contracting State under this Chapter shall be transmitted to a contracting State or, as the case may be, sent to the concerned Court in India in such form and in such manner as the Central Government may, by notification, specify in this behalf.

105L. Application of this Chapter. – The Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, direct that the application of this Chapter in relation to a contracting State with which reciprocal arrangements have been made, shall be subject to such conditions, exceptions or qualifications as are specified in the said notification.

CHAPTER VIII

Security For Keeping The Peace And For Good Behaviour

106. Security for keeping the peace on conviction. (1) When a Court of Session or Court of a Magistrate of the first class convicts a person of any of the offences specified in sub-section (2) or of abetting any such offence and is of opinion that it is necessary to take security from such person for keeping the peace, the Court may, at the time of passing sentence on such person, order him to execute a bond, with or without sureties, for keeping the peace for such period not exceeding three years, as it thinks fit.

(2) The offences referred to in sub-section (1) are –

(a) any offence punishable under Chapter VIII of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), other than an offence punishable under section l53-A or section 153-B or section 154 thereof;

(b) any offence which consists of, or includes, assault or using criminal force or committing mischief;

(c) any offence of criminal intimidation;

(d) any other offence which caused, or was intended or known to be likely to cause, a breach of the peace.

(3) If the conviction is set aside on appeal or otherwise, the bond so executed shall become void.

(4) An order under this section may also be made by an Appellate Court or by a Court when exercising its powers of revision.

107. Security for keeping the peace in other cases. – (1) When an Executive Magistrate receives information that any person is likely to commit a breach of the peace or disturb the public tranquillity or to do any wrongful act that may probably occasion a breach of the peace or disturb the public tranquillity and is of opinion that there is sufficient ground for proceeding, he may, in the manner hereinafter provided, require such person to show cause why he should not be ordered to execute a bond [with or without sureties] for keeping the place for such period, not exceeding one year, as the Magistrate thinks fit.

(2) Proceedings under this section may be taken before any Executive Magistrate when either the place where the breach of the peace or disturbance is apprehended is within his local jurisdiction or there is within such jurisdiction a person who is likely to commit a breach of the peace or disturb the public tranquillity or to do any wrongful act as aforesaid beyond such jurisdiction.

108. Security for good behaviour from persons disseminating seditious matters. – (1) When [an Executive Magistrate] receives information that there is within his jurisdiction any person who, within or without such jurisdiction, –

(i) either orally or in writing or in any other manner, intentionally disseminates or attempts to disseminate or abets the dissemination of –

(a) any matter the publication of which is punishable under section 124-A or section 153-A or section 153-B or section 295-A of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), or

(b) any matter concerning a Judge acting or purporting to act in the discharge of his official duties which amounts to criminal intimidation or defamation under the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), or

(ii) makes, produces, publishes or keeps for sale, imports, exports, conveys, sells, lets to hire, distributes, publicly exhibits or in any other manner puts into circulation any obscene matter such as is referred to in section 292 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), and the Magistrate is of opinion that there is sufficient ground for proceeding, the Magistrate may, in the manner hereinafter provided require such person to show cause why he should not be ordered to execute a bond, with or without sureties, for his good behaviour for such period, not exceeding one year, as the Magistrate thinks fit.

(2) No proceedings shall be taken under this section against the editor, proprietor, printer or publisher of any publication registered under, and edited, printed and published in conformity with, the rules laid down in the Press and Registration of Books Act, 1867 (25 of 1867), with reference to any matter contained in such publication except by the order or under the authority of the State Government or some officer empowered by the State Government in this behalf.

109. Security for good behaviour from suspected persons. – When [an Executive Magistrate] receives information that there is within his local jurisdiction a person taking precautions to conceal his presence and that there is reason to believe that he is doing so with a view to committing a cognisable offence, the Magistrate may, in the manner hereinafter provided, require such person to show cause why he should not be ordered to execute a bond, with or without sureties, for his good behaviour for such period, not exceeding one year, as the Magistrate thinks fit.

110. Security for good behaviour from habitual offenders. – When [an Executive Magistrate] receives information that there is within his local jurisdiction a person who –

(a) is by habit a robber, house-breaker, thief or forger, or

(b) is by habit a receiver of stolen property knowing the same to have been stolen, or

(c) habitually protects or harbours thieves, or aids in the concealment or disposal of stolen property, or

(d) habitually commits, or attempts to commit, or abets the commission of the offence of kidnapping, abduction, extortion, cheating or mischief, or any offence punishable under Chapter XII of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), or under section 489-A, section 489-B, section 489-C or section 489-D of that Code, or

(e) habitually commits, or attempts to commit, or abets the commission of offences, involving a breach of the peace, or

(f) habitually commits, or attempts to commit, or abets the commission of –

(i) any offence under one or more of the following Acts, namely :-

(a) the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 (23 of 1940);

[(b) the [Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1973 (46 of 1973)];]

(c) the Employees’ Provident Funds [and [Family Pension Fund] Act, 1952 (19 of 1952)];

(d) the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 (37 of 1954);

(e) the Essential Commodities Act, 1955 (10 of 1955);

(f) the [Untouchability (Offences) Act, 1955 (22 of 1955)];

(g) the Customs Act, 1962 (52 of 1962), [*]

[(h) The Foreigners Act, 1946 (31 of 1946); or]

(ii) any offence punishable under any other law providing for the prevention of hoarding or profiteering or of adulteration of food or drugs or of corruption, or

(g) is so desperate and dangerous as to render his being at large without security hazardous to the community, such Magistrate may, in the manner hereinafter provided, require such person to show cause why he should not be ordered to execute a bond, with sureties, for his good behaviour for such period, not exceeding three years, as the Magistrate thinks fit.

111. Order to be made. – When a Magistrate acting under section 107, section 108, section 109, or section 110, deems it necessary to require any person to show cause under such section, he shall make an order in writing, setting forth the substance of the information received, the amount of the bond to be executed, the term for which it is to be in force, and the number, character and class of sureties (if any), required.

112. Procedure in respect of person present in Court. – If the person in respect of whom such order is made is present in Court, it shall be read over to him, or, if he so desires, the substance thereof shall be explained to him.

113. Summons or warrant in case of person not so present. – If such person is not present in Court, the Magistrate shall issue a summons requiring him to appear, or when such person is in custody, a warrant directing the officer in whose custody he is to bring him before the Court :

Provided that whenever it appears to such Magistrate, upon the report of a police officer or upon other information (the substance of which report or information shall be recorded by the Magistrate), that there is reason to fear the commission of a breach of the peace, and that such breach of the peace cannot be prevented otherwise than by the immediate arrest of such person, the Magistrate may at any time issue a warrant for his arrest.

114. Copy of order to accompany summons or warrant. – Every summons or warrant issued under section 113 shall be accompanied by a copy of the order made under section 111, and such copy shall be delivered by the officer serving or executing such summons or warrant to the person served with, or arrested under, the same.

115. Power to dispense with personal attendance. – The Magistrate may, if he sees sufficient cause, dispense with the personal attendance of any person called upon to show cause why he should not be ordered to execute a bond for keeping the peace or for good behaviour and may permit him to appear by a pleader.

116. Inquiry as to truth of information. – (1) When an order under section 111 has been read or explained under section 112 to a person present in Court, or when any person appears or is brought before a Magistrate in compliance with, or in execution of, a summons or warrant, issued under section 113, the Magistrate shall proceed to inquire into the truth of the information upon which action has been taken, and to take such further evidence as may appear necessary.

(2) Such inquiry shall be made, as nearly as may be practicable, in the manner hereinafter prescribed for conducting trial and recording evidence in summons cases.

(3) After the commencement and before the completion of the inquiry under sub-section (1), the Magistrate, if he considers that immediate measures are necessary for the prevention of a breach of the peace or disturbance of the public tranquillity or the commission of any offence or for the public safety, may, for reasons to be recorded in writing, direct the person in respect of whom the order under section 111 has been made to execute bond, with or without sureties, for keeping the peace or maintaining good behaviour until the conclusion of the inquiry, and may detain him in custody until such bond is executed or, in default of execution, until the inquiry is concluded :

Provided that –

(a) no person against whom proceedings are not being taken under section 108, section 109 or section 110 shall be directed to execute a bond for maintaining good behaviour;

(b) the conditions of such bond, whether as to the amount thereof or as to the provision of sureties or the number thereof or the pecuniary extent of their liability, shall not be more onerous than those specified in order under section 111.

(4) For the purposes of this section the fact that a person is an habitual offender or is so desperate and dangerous as to render his being at large without security hazardous to the community may be proved by evidence of general repute or otherwise.

(5) Where two or more persons have been associated together in the matter under inquiry, they may be dealt with in the same or separate inquiries as the Magistrate shall think just.

(6) The inquiry under this section shall be completed within a period of six months from the date of its commencement, and if such inquiry is not so completed, the proceedings under this Chapter shall, on the expiry of the said period, stand terminated unless, for special reasons to be recorded in writing, the Magistrate otherwise directs:

Provided that where any person has been kept in detention pending such inquiry, the proceeding against that person, unless terminated earlier, shall stand terminated on the expiry of a period of six months of such detention.

(7) Where any direction is made under sub-section (6) permitting the continuance of proceedings, the Sessions Judge may, on an application made to him by the aggrieved party, vacate such direction if he is satisfied that it was not based on any special reason or was perverse.

117. Order to give security. – If, upon such inquiry, it is proved that it is necessary for keeping the peace or maintaining good behaviour, as the case may be, that the person in respect of whom the inquiry is made should execute a bond, with or without sureties, the Magistrate shall make an order accordingly :

Provided that –

(a) no person shall be ordered to give security of a nature different from, or of an amount larger than, or for a period longer than, that specified in the order made under section 111;

(b) the amount of every bond shall be fixed with due regard to the circumstances of the case and shall not be excessive;

(c) when the person in respect of whom the inquiry is made is a minor, the bond shall be executed only by his sureties.

118. Discharge of person informed against. – If, on an inquiry under section 116, it is not proved that it is necessary for keeping the peace or maintaining good behaviour, as the case may be, that the person in respect of whom the inquiry is made, should execute a bond, the Magistrate shall make an entry on the record to that effect, and if such person is in custody only for the purposes of the inquiry, shall release him, or if such person is not in custody, shall discharge him.

119. Commencement of period for which security is required. – (1) If any person, in respect of whom an order requiring security is made under section 106 or section 117, is, at the time such order is made, sentenced to, or undergoing a sentence of, imprisonment, the period for which such security is required shall commence on the expiration of such sentence.

(2) In other cases such period shall commence on the date of such order unless the Magistrate, for sufficient reason, fixes a later date.

120. Contents of bond. – The bond to be executed by any such person shall bind him to keep the peace or to be of good behaviour, as the case may be, and in the latter case the commission or attempt to commit, or the abetment of, any offence punishable with imprisonment, wherever it may be committed, is a breach of the bond.

121. Power to reject sureties. – (1) A Magistrate may refuse to accept any surety offered, or may reject any surety previously accepted by him or his predecessor under this Chapter on the ground that such surety is an unfit person for the purposes of the bond :

Provided that, before so refusing to accept or rejecting any such surety, he shall either himself hold an inquiry on oath into the fitness of the surety, or cause such inquiry to be held and a report to be made thereon by a Magistrate subordinate to him.

(2) Such Magistrate shall, before holding the inquiry, give reasonable notice to the surety and to the person by whom the surety was offered and shall, in making the inquiry, record the substance of the evidence adduced before him.

(3) If the Magistrate is satisfied, after considering the evidence so adduced either before him or before a Magistrate deputed under sub-section (1), and the report of such Magistrate (if any), that the surety is an unfit person for the purposes of the bond, he shall make an order refusing to accept or rejecting, as the case may be, such surety and recording his reasons for so doing :

Provided that before making an order rejecting any surety who has previously been accepted, the Magistrate shall issue him summons or warrant, as he thinks fit, and cause the person for whom the surety is bond to appear or to be brought before him.

122. Imprisonment in default of security. – (1) (a) If any person ordered to give security, under section 106 or section 117, does not give such security on or before the date on which the period for which such security is to be given commences, he shall, except in the case next hereinafter mentioned, be committed to prison, or, if he is already in prison, be detained in prison until such period expires or until within such period he gives the security to the Court or Magistrate who made the order requiring it.

(b) If any person after having executed a [bond with or without sureties] for keeping the peace in pursuance of an order of a Magistrate under section 117, is proved to the satisfaction of such Magistrate or his successor-in-office, to have committed breach of the bond, such Magistrate or successor-in-office may, after recording the grounds of such proof, order that the person be arrested and detained in prison until the expiry of the period of the bond and such order shall be without prejudice to any other punishment or forfeiture to which the said person may be liable in accordance with law.

(2) When such person has been ordered by a Magistrate to give security for a period exceeding one year, such Magistrate shall, if such person does not give such security as aforesaid, issue a warrant directing him to be detained in prison pending the orders of the Session Judge and the proceedings shall be laid, as soon as conveniently may be, before such Court.

(3) Such Court, after examining such proceedings and requiring from the Magistrate any further information or evidence which it thinks necessary, and after giving the concerned person a reasonable opportunity of being heard, may pass such order on the case as it thinks fit :

Provided that the period (if any) for which any person is imprisoned for failure to give security shall not exceed three years.

(4) If security has been required in the course of the same proceeding from two or more persons in respect of any one of whom the proceedings are referred to the Sessions Judge under sub-section (2), such reference shall also include the case of any other of such persons who has been ordered to give security, and the provisions of sub-sections (2) and (3) shall, in that event, apply to the case of such other person also, except that the period (if any), for which he may be imprisoned, shall not exceed the period for which he was ordered to give security.

(5) A Sessions Judge may, in his discretion transfer any proceedings laid before him under sub-section (2) or sub-section (4) to an Additional Session Judge or Assistant Sessions Judge and upon such transfer, such Additional Sessions Judge or Assistant Sessions Judge may exercise the powers of a Sessions Judge under this section in respect of such proceedings.

(6) If the security is tendered to the officer-in-charge of the jail, he shall forthwith refer the matter to the Court or Magistrate who made the order, and shall await the orders of such Court or Magistrate.

(7) Imprisonment for failure to give security for keeping the peace shall be simple.

(8) Imprisonment for failure to give security for good behaviour shall, where the proceedings have been taken under section 108, be simple, and, where the proceedings have been taken under section 109 or section 110, be rigorous or simple as the Court or Magistrate in each case directs.

123. Power to release persons imprisoned for failing to give security. – (1) Whenever [the District Magistrate in the case of an order passed by an Executive Magistrate under section 117, or the Chief Judicial Magistrate in any other case] is of opinion that any person imprisoned for failing to give security under this Chapter may be released without hazard to the community or to any other person, he may order such person to be discharged.

(2) Whenever any person has been imprisoned for failing to give security under this Chapter, the High Court or Court of Session, or, where the order was made by any other Court, [the District Magistrate, in the case of an order passed by an Executive Magistrate under section 117, or the Chief Judicial Magistrate in any other case], may make an order reducing the amount of the security or the number of sureties or the time for which security has been required.

(3) An order under sub-section (1) may direct the discharge of such person either without conditions or upon any conditions which such person accepts :

Provided that any condition imposed shall cease to be operative when the period for which such person was ordered to give security has expired.

(4) The State Government may prescribe the conditions upon which a conditional discharge may be made.

(5) If any condition upon which any person has been discharged is, in the opinion of [the District Magistrate, in the case of an order passed by an Executive Magistrate under section 117, or the Chief Judicial Magistrate in any other case] by whom the order of discharge was made or of his successor, not fulfilled, he may cancel the same.

(6) When a conditional order of discharge has been cancelled under sub-section (5), such person may be arrested by any police officer without warrant and shall thereupon be produced before [before the District Magistrate, in the case of an order passed by an Executive Magistrate under section 117, or the Chief Judicial Magistrate in any other case].

(7) Unless such person gives security in accordance with the terms of the original order for the unexpired portion of the term for which he was in the first instance committed or ordered to be detained (such portion being deemed to be a period equal to the period between the date of the breach of the conditions of discharge and the date on which, except for such conditional discharge, he would have been entitled to release), [the District Magistrate, in the case of an order passed by an Executive Magistrate under section 117, or the Chief Judicial Magistrate in any other case], may remand such person to prison to undergo such unexpired portion.

(8) A person remanded to prison under sub-section (7) shall, subject to the provisions of section 112, be released at any time on giving security in accordance with the terms of the original order for the unexpired portion aforesaid to the Court of Magistrate by whom such order was made, or to its or his successor.

(9) The High Court or Court of Session may at any time, for sufficient reasons to be recorded in writing, cancel any bond for keeping the peace or for good behaviour executed under this Chapter by any order made by it, and [the District Magistrate, in the case of an order passed by an Executive Magistrate under section 117, or the Chief Judicial Magistrate in any other case], may make such cancellation where such bond was executed under his order or under the order of any other court in his district.

(10) Any surety for the peaceable conduct or good behaviour of another person ordered to execute a bond under this Chapter may at any time apply to the Court making such order to cancel the bond and on application being made, the Court shall issue a summons or warrant, as it thinks fit, requiring the person for whom such surety is bound to appear or to be brought before it.

124. Security for unexpired period of bond. – (1) When a person for whose appearance a summons or warrant has been issued under the proviso to sub-section (3) of section 121 or under sub-section (10) of section 123, appears or is brought before the Magistrate or Court, the Magistrate or Court shall cancel the bond executed by such person and shall order such person to give, for the unexpired portion of the term of such bond, fresh security of the same description as the original security.

(2) Every such order shall, for the purpose of sections 120 to 123 (both inclusive), be deemed to be an order made under section 106 or section 117 as the case may be.

CHAPTER IX

Order For Maintenance Of Wives, Children And Parents

125. Order for maintenance of wives, children and parents. – (1) If any person having sufficient means neglects or refuses to maintain –

(a) his wife, unable to maintain herself, or

(b) his legitimate or illegitimate minor child, whether married or not, unable to maintain itself, or

(c) his legitimate or illegitimate child (not being a married daughter) who has attained majority, where such child is, by reason of any physical or mental abnormality or injury unable to maintain itself, or

(d) his father or mother, unable to maintain himself or herself, a Magistrate of the first class may, upon proof of such neglect or refusal, order such person to make a monthly allowance for the maintenance of his wife or such child, father or mother, at such monthly rate [* * *], as such Magistrate thinks fit, and to pay the same to such person as the Magistrate may from time to time direct :

Provided that the Magistrate may order the father of a minor female child referred to in clause (b) to make such allowance, until she attains her majority, if the Magistrate is satisfied that the husband of such minor female child, if married, is not possessed of sufficient means.

[Provided further that the Magistrate may, during the pendency of the proceeding regarding monthly allowance for the maintenance under this sub-section, order such person to make a monthly allowance for the interim maintenance of his wife or such child, father or mother, and the expenses of such proceeding which the Magistrate considers reasonable, and to pay the same to such person as the Magistrate may from time to time direct.

Provided also that an application for the monthly allowance for the interim maintenance and expenses of proceeding under the second proviso shall, as far as possible, be disposed of within sixty days from the date of the service of notice of the application to such person.]

Explanation. – For the purposes of this Chapter, –

(a) “minor” means a person who, under the provisions of the Indian Majority Act, 1875 (9 of 1875) is deemed not to have attained his majority,

(b) “wife” includes a woman who has been divorced by, or has obtained a divorce from, her husband and has not re-married.

[(2) Any such allowance for the maintenance or interim maintenance and expenses for proceeding shall be payable from the date of the order, or, if so ordered, from the date of the application for maintenance or interim maintenance and expenses of proceeding, as the case may be.]

(3) If any person so ordered fails without sufficient cause to comply with the order, any such Magistrate may, for every breach of the order, issue a warrant for levying the amount due in the manner provided for levying fines, and may sentence such person, for the whole or any part of each month’s [allowance for the maintenance or the interim maintenance and expenses of proceeding, as the case may be,] remaining unpaid after the execution of the warrant, to imprisonment for a term which may extend to one month or until payment if sooner made :

Provided that no warrant shall be issued for the recovery of any amount due under this section unless application be made to the Court to levy such amount within a period of one year from the date on which it became due:

Provided further that if such person offers to maintain his wife on condition of her living with him, and she refuses to live with him, such Magistrate may consider any grounds of refusal stated by her, and may make an order under this section notwithstanding such offer, if he is satisfied that there is just ground for so doing.

Explanation. – If a husband has contracted marriage with another woman or keeps a mistress, it shall be considered to be just ground for his wife’s refusal to live with him.

(4) No wife shall be entitled to receive an [allowance for the maintenance or the interim maintenance and expenses of proceeding, as the case may be,] from her husband under this section if she is living in adultery, or if, without any sufficient reason, she refuses to live with her husband, or if they are living separately by mutual consent.

(5) On proof that any wife in whose favour an order has been made under this section is living in adultery, or that without sufficient reason she refuses to live with her husband, or that they are living separately by mutual consent, the Magistrate shall cancel the order.

126. Procedure. – (1) Proceedings under section 125 may be taken against any person in any district –

(a) where he is, or

(b) where he or his wife resides, or

(c) where he last resided with his wife, or as the case may be, with the mother of the illegitimate child.

(2) All evidence to such proceedings shall be taken in the presence of the person against whom an order for payment of maintenance is proposed to be made or, when his personal attendance is dispensed with, in the presence of his pleader, and shall be recorded in the manner prescribed for summons cases :

Provided that if the Magistrate is satisfied that the person against whom an order for payment of maintenance is proposed to be made is wilfully avoiding service, or wilfully neglecting to attend the Court, the Magistrate may proceed to hear and determine the case ex parte and any order so made may be set aside for good cause shown on an application made within three months from the date thereof subject to such terms including terms as to payment of costs to the opposite party as the Magistrate may think just and proper.

(3) The Court in dealing with applications under section 125 shall have power to make such order as to costs as may be just.

127. Alteration in allowance. – [(1) On proof of a change in the circumstances of any person, receiving under section 125 a monthly allowance, for the maintenance or interim maintenance, or ordered under the same section to pay a monthly allowance for the maintenance, or interim maintenance, to his wife, child, father or mother, as the case may be, the Magistrate may make such alteration, as he thinks fit, in the allowance for the maintenance or the interim maintenance, as the case may be.]

(2) Where it appears to the Magistrate that in consequence of any decision of a competent Civil Court, any order made under section 125 should be cancelled or varied, he shall cancel the order or, as the case may be, vary the same accordingly.

(3) Where any order has been made under section 125 in favour of a woman who has been divorced by, or has obtained a divorce from her husband, the Magistrate shall, if he is satisfied that –

(a) the woman has, after the date of such divorce, re-married, cancel such order as from the date of her re-marriage;

(b) the woman has been divorced by her husband and that she has received, whether before or after the date of the said order, the whole of the sum which, under any customary or personal law applicable to the parties, was payable on such divorce, cancel such order –

(i) in the case where such sum was paid before such order, from the date on which such order was made;

(ii) in any other case, from the date of expiry of the period, if any, for which maintenance has been actually paid by the husband to the woman;

(c) the woman has obtained a divorce from her husband and that she had voluntarily surrendered her rights to [maintenance or interim maintenance as the case may be,] after her divorce, cancel the order from the date thereof.

(4) At the time of making any decree for the recovery of any maintenance or dowry by any person, to whom a [monthly allowance for the maintenance and interim maintenance or any of them has been ordered] to be paid under Section 125, the Civil Court shall take into account the sum which has been paid to, or recovered by such person [as monthly allowance for the maintenance and interim maintenance or any of them, as the case may be, in pursuance of] the said order.

128. Enforcement of order of maintenance. – A copy of the order of [maintenance or interim maintenance and expenses of proceeding, as the case may be] shall be given without payment to the person in whose favour it is made, or to his guardian, if any, or to the person to [whom the allowance for the maintenance or the allowance for the interim maintenance and expenses of proceeding, as the case may be,] is to be paid; and such order may be enforced by any Magistrate in any place where the person against whom it is made may be, on such Magistrate being satisfied as to the identity of the parties and the non-payment of the [allowance, or as the case may be, expenses due].

CHAPTER X

Maintenance Of Public Order And Tranquillity

A. Unlawful Assemblies

129. Dispersal of assembly by use of civil force. – (1) Any Executive Magistrate or officer-in-charge of a police station or, in the absence of such officer-in-charge, any police officer, not below the rank of a sub-inspector, may command any lawful assembly, or any assembly of five or more persons likely to cause a disturbance of the public peace, to disperse; and it shall thereupon be the duty of the members of such assembly to disperse accordingly.

(2) If, upon being so commanded, any such assembly does not disperse, or if, without being so commanded, it conducts itself in such a manner as to show a determination not to disperse, any Executive Magistrate or police officer referred to in sub-section (1), may proceed to disperse such assembly by force, and may require the assistance of any male person, not being an officer or member of the armed forces and acting as such, for the purpose of dispersing such assembly, and, if necessary, arresting and confining the persons who form part of it, in order to disperse such assembly or that they may be punished according to law.

130. Use of armed forces to disperse assembly. – (1) If any such assembly cannot be otherwise dispersed, and if it is necessary for the public security that it should be dispersed, the Executive Magistrate of the highest rank who is present may cause it to be dispersed by the armed forces.

(2) Such Magistrate may require any officer in command of any group of person belonging to the armed forces to disperse the assembly with the help of the armed forces under his command, and to arrest and confine such persons forming part of it as the Magistrate may direct, or as it may be necessary to arrest and confine in order to disperse the assembly or to have them punished according to law.

(3) Every such officer of the armed forces shall obey such requisition in such manner as he thinks fit, but in so doing he shall use as little force, and do as little injury to person and property, as may be consistent with dispersing the assembly and arresting and detaining such persons.

131. Power of certain armed force officers to disperse assembly. – When the public security is manifestly endangered by any such assembly and no Executive Magistrate can be communicated with, any commissioned or gazetted officer of the armed forces may disperse such assembly with the help of the armed forces under his command, and may arrest and confine any person forming part of it, in order to disperse such assembly or that they may be punished according to law, but if, while he is acting under this section, it becomes practicable for him to communicate with an Executive Magistrate, he shall do so and shall thence forward obey the instructions of the Magistrate, as to whether he shall or shall not continue such action.

132. Protection against prosecution for acts done under preceding section. – (1) No prosecution against any person for any act purporting to be done under section 129, section 130 or section 131 shall be instituted in any Criminal Court, except –

(a) with the sanction of the Central Government where such person is an officer or member of the armed forces;

(b) with the sanction of State Government in any other case.

(2) (a) no Executive Magistrate or police officer acting under any of the said sections in good faith;

(b) no person doing any act in good faith in compliance with a requisition under section 129 or section 130;

(c) no officer of the armed forces acting under section 131 in good faith;

(d) no member of the armed forces doing any act in obedience to any order which he was bound to obey, shall be deemed to have thereby committed an offence.

(3) In this section and in the preceding section of this Chapter, –

(a) the expression, “armed forces” means the military, naval and air forces, operating as land forces and includes any other armed forces of the Union so operating;

(b) “officer”, in relation to the armed forces, means a person commissioned, gazetted or in pay as an officer of the armed forces and includes a junior commissioned officer, a warrant officer, a petty officer, a non-commissioned officer and a non-gazetted officer;

(c) “member” in relation to the armed forces, means a person in the armed forces other than an officer.

B. Public Nuisances

133. Conditional order for removal of nuisance. – (1) Whenever a District Magistrate or Sub-Divisional Magistrate or any other Executive Magistrate specially empowered in this behalf by the State Government, on receiving the report of a police officer or other information and on taking such evidence (if any) as he thinks fit, considers –

(a) that any unlawful obstruction or nuisance should be removed from any public place or from any way, river or channel which is or may be lawfully used by the public; or

(b) that the conduct of any trade or occupation, or the keeping of any goods or merchandise, is injurious to the health or physical comfort of the community, and that in consequence such trade or occupation should be prohibited or regulated or such goods or merchandise should be removed or the keeping thereof regulated; or

(c) that the construction of any building, or, the disposal of any substance, as is likely to occasion conflagration to explosion, should be prevented or stopped; or

(d) that any building, tent or structure, or any tree is in such a condition that it is likely to fall and thereby cause injury to persons living or carrying on business in the neighbourhood or passing by, and that in consequence the removal, repair or support of such building, tent or structure, or the removal or support of such tree, is necessary; or

(e) that any tank, well or excavation adjacent to any such way or public place should be fenced in such manner as to prevent danger arising to the public; or

(f) that any dangerous animal should be destroyed, confined or otherwise disposed of, such Magistrate may make a conditional order requiring the person causing such obstruction or nuisance, or carrying on such trade or occupation, or keeping any such goods or merchandise, or owning or possessing or controlling such building, tent, structure, substance, tank, well or excavation, or owning or possessing such animal or tree, within a time to be fixed in the order –

(i) to remove such obstruction or nuisance; or

(ii) to desist from carrying on, or to remove or regulate in such manner as may be directed, such trade or occupation, or to remove such goods or merchandise, or to regulate the keeping thereof in such manner as may be directed; or

(iii) to prevent or stop the construction of such building, or to alter the disposal of such substance; or

(iv) to remove, repair or support such building, tent or structure, or to remove or support such trees; or

(v) to fence such tank, well or excavation; or

(vi) to destroy, confine or dispose of such dangerous animal in the manner provided in the said order, or, if he objects so to do, to appear before himself or some other Executive Magistrate subordinate to him at a time and place to be fixed by the order and show cause, in the manner hereinafter provided, why the order should not be made absolute.

(2) No order duly made by a Magistrate under this section shall be called in question in any Civil Court.

Explanation. – A “public place” includes also property belonging to the State, camping grounds and grounds left unoccupied for sanitary or recreative purposes.

134. Service or notification of order. – (1) The order shall, if practicable, be served on the person against whom it is made, in the manner hereinafter provided for service of a summons.

(2) If such order cannot be so served, it shall be notified by proclamation, published in such manner as the State Government may, by rules, direct, and a copy thereof shall be stuck up at such place or places as may be fittest for conveying the information to such person.

135. Person to whom order is addressed to obey or show cause. – The person against whom such order is made shall –

(a) perform, within the time and in the manner specified in the order, the act directed thereby; or

(b) appear in accordance with such order and show cause against the same.

136. Consequences of his failing to do so. – If such person does not perform such act or appear and show cause, he shall be liable to the penalty prescribed in that behalf in section 188 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), and the order shall be made absolute.

137. Procedure where existence of public right is denied. – (1) Where an order is made under section 133 for the purpose of preventing obstruction, nuisance or danger to the public in the use of any way, river channel, or place, the Magistrate shall, on the appearance before him of the person against whom the order was made, question him as to whether he denies the existence of any public right in respect of the way, river, channel or place, and if he does so, the Magistrate shall, before proceeding under section 138, inquire into the matter.

(2) If in such inquiry the Magistrate finds that there is any reliable evidence in support of such denial, he shall stay the proceedings until the matter of the existence of such right has been decided by a competent Court; and, if he finds that there is no such evidence, he shall proceed as laid down in section 138.

(3) A person who has, on being questioned by the Magistrate under sub-section (1), failed to deny the existence of a public right of the nature therein referred to, or who, having made such denial, has failed to adduce reliable evidence in support thereof, shall not in the subsequent proceedings be permitted to make any such denial.

138. Procedure where he appears to show cause. – (1) If the person against whom an order under section 133 is made appears and shows cause against the order, the Magistrate shall take evidence in the manner as in a summons case.

(2) If the Magistrate is satisfied that the order, either as originally made or subject to such modification as he considers necessary, is reasonable and proper, the order shall be made absolute without modification or, as the case may be, with such modification.

(3) If the Magistrate is not so satisfied, no further proceedings shall be taken in the case.

139. Power of Magistrate to direct local investigation and examination of an expert. – The Magistrate may, for the purposes of an inquiry under section 137 or section 138 –

(a) direct a local investigation to be made by such person as he thinks fit; or

(b) summon and examine an expert.

140. Power of Magistrate to furnish written instructions, etc. – (1) Where the Magistrate directs a local investigation by any person under section 139, the Magistrate may –

(a) furnish such person with such written instructions as may seem necessary for his guidance;

(b) declare by whom the whole or any part of the necessary expenses of the local investigation shall be paid.

(2) The report of such person may be read as evidence in the case.

(3) Where the Magistrate summons and examines an expert under section 139, the Magistrate may direct by whom the costs of such summoning and examination shall be paid.

141. Procedure on order being made absolute and consequences of disobedience. – (1) When an order has been made absolute under section 136 or section 138, the Magistrate shall give notice of the same to the person against whom the order was made, and shall further require him to perform the act directed by the order within a time to be fixed in the notice, and inform him that, in case of disobedience, he will be liable to the penalty provided by section 188 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860).

(2) If such act is not performed within the time fixed, the Magistrate may cause it to be performed, and may recover the costs of performing it, either by the sale of any building, goods or other property removed by his order, or by the distress and sale of any other movable property of such person within or without such Magistrate’s local jurisdiction, and if such other property is without such jurisdiction, the order shall authorise its attachment and sale when endorsed by the Magistrate within whose local jurisdiction the property to be attached is found.

(3) No suit shall lie in respect of anything done in good faith under this section.

142. Injunction pending inquiry. – (1) If a Magistrate making an order under section 133 considers that immediate measures should be taken to prevent imminent danger or injury of a serious kind to the public, he may issue such an injunction to the person against whom the order was made, as is required to obviate or prevent such danger or injury pending the determination of the matter.

(2) In default of such person forthwith obeying such injunction, the Magistrate may himself use, or cause to be used, such means as he thinks fit to obviate such danger or to prevent such injury.

(3) No suit shall lie in respect of anything done in good faith by a Magistrate under this section.

143. Magistrate may prohibit repetition or continuance of public nuisance. – A District Magistrate or Sub-Divisional Magistrate, or any other Executive Magistrate empowered by the State Government or the District Magistrate in this behalf, may order any person not to repeat or continue a public nuisance, as defined in the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), or any special or local law.

C. Urgent cases of nuisance or apprehended danger

144. Power to issue order in urgent cases of nuisance or apprehended danger. – (1) In cases where, in the opinion of a District Magistrate, a Sub-Divisional Magistrate or any other Executive Magistrate specially empowered by the State Government in this behalf, there is sufficient ground for proceeding under this section and immediate prevention or speedy remedy is desirable, such Magistrate may, by a written order stating the material facts of the case and served in the manner provided by section 134, direct any person to abstain from a certain act or to take certain order with respect to certain property in his possession or under his management, if such Magistrate considers that such direction is likely to prevent, or tends to prevent, obstruction, annoyance or injury to any person lawfully employed, or danger to human life, health or safety, or a disturbance of the public tranquillity, or a riot, or an affray.

(2) An order under this Section may, in cases of emergency or in cases where the circumstances do not admit of the serving in due time of a notice upon the person against whom the order is directed, be passed ex parte.

(3) An order under this Section may be directed to a particular individual or to persons residing in a particular place or area, or to the public generally when frequenting or visiting a particular place or area.

(4) No order under this Section shall remain in force for more than two months from the making thereof :

Provided that, if the State Government considers it necessary so to do for preventing danger to human life, health or safety or for preventing a riot or any affray, it may, by notification, direct that an order made by a Magistrate under this section shall remain in force for such further period not exceeding six months from the date on which the order made by the Magistrate would have, but for such order, expired, as it may specify in the said notification.

(5) Any Magistrate may, either on his own motion or on the application of any person aggrieved, rescind or alter any order made under this section by himself or any Magistrate subordinate to him or by his predecessor-in-office.

(6) The State Government may, either on its own motion or on the application of any person aggrieved, rescind or alter any order made by it under the proviso to sub-section (4).

(7) Where an application under sub-section (5) or sub-section (6) is received, the Magistrate, or the State Government, as the case may be, shall afford to the applicant an early opportunity of appearing before him or it, either in person or by pleader and showing cause against the order; and if the Magistrate or the State Government, as the case may be, rejects the application wholly or in part, he or it shall record in writing the reasons for so doing.

[144-A. Power to prohibit carrying arms in possession or mass drill or mass training with arms – (1) The District Magistrate may, whenever he considers it necessary so to do for the preservation of public peace or public safety or for the maintenance of public order, by public notice or by order, prohibit in any area within the local limits of his jurisdiction, the carrying of arms in any possession or the organising or holding of, or taking part in, any mass drill or mass training with arms in any public place.

(2) A public notice issued or an order made under this Section may the directed to a particular person or to persons belonging to any community, party or organisation.

(3) No public notice issued or an order made under this Section shall remain in force for more than three months from the date on which it is issued or made.

(4) The State Government may, if it considers necessary so to do for the preservation of public peace or public safety or for the maintenance of public order, by notification, direct that a public notice issued or order made by the District Magistrate under this Section shall remain in force for such further period not exceeding six months from the date on which such public notice or order was issued or made by the District Magistrate would have, but for such directions, expired, as it may specify in the said notification.

(5) The State Government may, subject to such control and directions as it may deem fit to impose, by general or special order, delicate its powers under sub-section (4) to the District Magistrate.

Explanation – The word “arms” shall have the meaning assigned to it in Section 153 – AA or the Indian Penal Code, 1860].

D. Disputes as to immovable property

145. Procedure where dispute concerning land or water is likely to cause breach of peace. – (1) Whenever an Executive Magistrate is satisfied from a report of a police officer or upon other information that a dispute likely to cause a breach of the peace exists concerning any land or water or the boundaries thereof, within his local jurisdiction, he shall make an order in writing, stating the grounds of his being so satisfied, and requiring the parties concerned in such dispute to attend his court in person or by pleader, on a specified date and time, and to put in written statements of their respective claims as respects the fact of actual possession of the subject of dispute.

(2) For the purposes of this section, the expression “land or water” includes buildings, markets, fisheries, crops or other produce of land and the rents or profits of any such property.

(3) A copy of the order shall be served in the manner provided by this Code for the service of a summons upon such person or persons as the Magistrate may direct, and at least one copy shall be published by being affixed to some conspicuous place at or near the subject of dispute.

(4) The Magistrate shall then, without reference of the merits or the claims of any of the parties to a right to possess the subject of dispute, peruse the statements so put in, hear the parties, receive all such evidence as may be produced by them, take such further evidence, if any, as he thinks necessary, and, if possible, decide whether any and which of the parties was, at the date of the order made by him under sub-section (1), in possession of the subject of dispute :

Provided that if it appears to the Magistrate that any party has been forcibly and wrongfully dispossessed within two months next before the date on which the report of a police officer or other information was received by the Magistrate, or after that date and before the date of his order under sub-section (1), he may treat the party so dispossessed as if that party had been in possession on the date of this order under sub-section (1).

(5) Nothing in this section shall preclude any party so required to attend, or any other person interested, from showing that no such dispute as aforesaid exists or has existed; and in such case the Magistrate shall cancel his said order, and all further proceedings thereon shall be stayed, but subject to such cancellation, the order of the Magistrate under sub-section (1) shall be final.

(6) (a) If the Magistrate decides that one of the parties was, or should under the proviso to sub-section (4) be treated as being, in such possession of the said subject, he shall issue an order declaring such party to be entitled to possession thereof until evicted therefrom in due course of law, and forbidding all disturbance of such possession until such eviction; and when he proceeds under the proviso to sub-section (4), may restore to possession the party forcibly and wrongfully dispossessed.

(b) The order made under this sub-section shall be served and published in the manner laid down in sub-section (3).

(7) When any party to any such proceeding dies, the Magistrate may cause the legal representative of the deceased party to be made a party to the proceeding and shall thereupon continue the inquiry, and if any question arises as to who the legal representative of a deceased party for the purposes of such proceeding is, all persons claiming to be representatives of the deceased party shall be made parties thereto.

(8) If the Magistrate is of opinion that any crop or other produce of the property, the subject of dispute in a proceeding under this section pending before him, is subject to speedy and natural decay, he may make an order for the proper custody or sale of such property, and, upon the completion of the inquiry, shall make such order for the disposal of such property, or the sale-proceeds thereof, as he thinks fit.

(9) The Magistrate may, if he thinks fit, at any stage of the proceedings under this section, on the application of either party, issue a summons to any witness directing him to attend or to produce any document or thing.

(10) Nothing in this section shall be deemed to be in derogation of the powers of the Magistrate to proceed under section 107.

146. Power to attach subject of dispute and to appoint receiver. – (1) If the Magistrate at any time after making the order under sub-section (1) of section 145 considers the case to be one of emergency, or if he decides that none of the parties was then in such possession as is referred to in section 145, or if he is unable to satisfy himself as to which of them was then in such possession of the subject of dispute, he may attach the subject of dispute until a competent court has determined the rights of the parties thereto with regard to the person entitled to the possession thereof :

Provided that such Magistrate may withdraw the attachment at any time if he is satisfied that there is no longer any likelihood of breach of the peace with regard to the subject of dispute.

(2) When the Magistrate attaches the subject of dispute, he may, if no receiver in relation to such subject of dispute has been appointed by any Civil Court, make such arrangements as he considers proper for looking after the property or if he thinks fit, appoint a receiver thereof, who shall have, subject to the control of the Magistrate, all the powers of a receiver appointed under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908) :

Provided that in the event of a receiver being subsequently appointed in relation to the subject of dispute by any Civil Court, the Magistrate –

(a) shall order the receiver appointed by him to hand over the possession of the subject of dispute to the receiver appointed by the Civil Court and shall thereafter discharge the receiver appointed by him;

(b) may make such other incidental or consequential orders as may be just.

147. Dispute concerning right of use of land or water. – (1) Whenever an Executive Magistrate is satisfied from the report of a police officer or upon other information, that a dispute likely to cause a breach of the peace exists regarding any alleged right of user of any land or water within his local jurisdiction, whether such right be claimed as an easement or otherwise, he shall make an order in writing, stating the grounds of his being so satisfied and requiring the parties concerned in such dispute to attend his Court in person or by pleader on a specified date and time and to put in written statement of their respective claims.

Explanation. – The expression “land or water” has the meaning given to it in sub-section (2) of section 145.

(2) The Magistrate shall then peruse the statements so put in, hear the parties, receive all such evidence as may be produced by them respectively, consider the effect of such evidence, take such further evidence, if any, as he thinks necessary and, if possible, decide whether such right exists; and the provisions of section 145 shall, so far as may be, apply in the case of such inquiry.

(3) If it appears to such Magistrate that such right exists, he may make an order prohibiting any interference with the exercise of such right including, in a proper case, an order for the removal of any obstruction in the exercise of any such right :

Provided that no such order shall be made where the right is exercisable at all times of the year, unless such right has been exercised within three months next before the receipt under sub-section (1) of the report of a police officer or other information leading to the institution of the inquiry, or where the right is exercisable only at particular seasons or on particular occasions, unless the right has been exercised during the last of such seasons or on the last of such occasions before such receipt.

(4) When in any proceedings commenced under sub-section (1) of section 145 the Magistrate finds that the dispute is as regards an alleged right of user of land or water, he may, after recording his reasons, continue with the proceedings as if they had been commenced under sub-section (1);

and when in any proceedings commenced under sub-section (1) the Magistrate finds that the dispute should be dealt with under section 145, he may, after recording his reasons, continue with the proceedings as if they had been commenced under sub-section (1) of section 145.

148. Local inquiry. – (1) Whenever a local inquiry is necessary for the purposes of section 145, section 146 or section 147, a District Magistrate or Sub-Divisional Magistrate may depute any Magistrate subordinate to him to make the inquiry, and may furnish him with such written instructions as may seem necessary for his guidance, and may declare by whom the whole or any part of the necessary expenses of the inquiry shall be paid.

(2) The report of the person so deputed may be read as evidence in the case.

(3) When any costs have been incurred by any party to a proceeding under section 145, section 146, or section 147, the Magistrate passing a decision may direct by whom such costs shall be paid, whether by such party or by any other party to the proceedings, and whether in whole or in part or proportion and such costs may include any expenses incurred in respect of witnesses and of pleader’s fees, which the Court may consider reasonable.

CHAPTER XI

Preventive Action Of The Police

149. Police to prevent cognisable offences. – Every police officer may interpose for the purposes of preventing, and shall, to the best of his ability, prevent the commission of any cognisable offence.

150. Information of design to commit cognisable offences. – Every police officer receiving information of a design to commit any cognisable offence shall communicate such information to the police officer to whom he is subordinate, and to any other officer whose duty it is to prevent or take cognizance of the commission of any such offence.

151. Arrest to prevent the commission of cognisable offence. – (1) A police officer, knowing of a design to commit any cognisable offence may arrest, without orders from the Magistrate and without a warrant, the person so designing, if it appears to such officer that the commission of the offence cannot be otherwise prevented.

(2) No person arrested under sub-section (1) shall be detained in custody for a period exceeding twenty-four hours from the time of his arrest unless his further detention is required or authorised under any other provisions of this Code or of any other law for the time being in force.

152. Prevention of injury to public property. – A police officer may of his own authority interpose to prevent any injury attempted to be committed in his view to any public property, movable or immovable, or the removal or injury of any public landmark or buoy or other mark used for navigation.

153. Inspection for weights and measures. – (1) Any officer-in-charge of a police station may, without a warrant, enter any place within the limits of such station for the purpose of inspecting or searching for any weights or measures or instruments for weighing, used or kept therein, whenever he has reason to believe that there are in such place any weights, measures or instruments for weighing which are false.

(2) If he finds in such place any weights, measures or instruments for weighing which are false, he may seize the same, and shall forthwith give information of such seizure to a Magistrate having jurisdiction.

CHAPTER XII

Information To The Police And Their Powers To Investigate

154. Information in cognisable cases. – (1) Every information relating to the commission of a cognisable offence, if given orally to an officer-in-charge of a police station, shall be reduced to writing by him or under his direction, and be read over to the informant; and every such information, whether given in writing or reduced to writing as aforesaid, shall be signed by the person giving it, and the substance thereof shall be entered in a book to be kept by such officer in such form as the State Government may prescribe in this behalf.

[Provided that if the information is given by the woman against whom an offence under section 326A, section 326B, section 354, section 354A, section 354B, section 354C, section 354D, section 376, [section 376A, section 376AB, section 376B, section 376C, section 376D, section 376DA, section 376DB,] section 376E or section 509 of the Indian Penal Code is alleged to have been committed or attempted, then such information shall be recorded, by a woman police officer or any woman officer:

Provided further that-

(a) in the event that the person against whom an offence under section 354, section 354A, section 354B, section 354C, section 354D, section 376, [section 376A, section 376AB, section 376B, section 376C, section 376D, section 376DA, section 376DB,] section 376E or section 509 of the Indian Penal Code is alleged to have been committed or attempted, is temporarily or permanently mentally or physically disabled, then such information shall be recorded by a police officer, at the residence of the person seeking to report such offence or at a convenient place of such person’s choice, in the presence of an interpreter or a special educator, as the case may be;

(b) the recording of such information shall be video-graphed;

(c) the police officer shall get the statement of the person recorded by a Judicial Magistrate under clause (a) of sub-section (5A) of section 164 as soon as possible.]

(2) A copy of the information as recorded under sub-section (1) shall be given forthwith, free of cost, to the informant.

(3) Any person aggrieved by a refusal on the part of an officer-in-charge of a police station to record the information referred to in sub-section (1) may send the substance of such information, in writing and by post, to the Superintendent of Police concerned who, if satisfied that such information discloses the commission of a cognisable offence, shall either investigate the case himself or direct an investigation to be made by any police officer subordinate to him, in the manner provided by this Code, and such officer shall have all the powers of an officer-in-charge of the police station in relation to that offence.

155. Information as to non-cognisable cases and investigation of such cases. – (1) When information is given to an officer-in-charge of a police station of the commission within the limits of such station of a non-cognisable offence, he shall enter or cause to be entered the substance of the information in a book to be kept by such officer in such form as the State Government may prescribe in this behalf, and refer the informant to the Magistrate.

(2) No police officer shall investigate a non-cognisable case without the order of a Magistrate having power to try such case or commit the case for trial.

(3) Any police officer receiving such order may exercise the same powers in respect of the investigation (except the power to arrest without warrant) as an officer-in-charge of a police station may exercise in a cognisable case.

(4) Where a case relates to two or more offences of which at least one is cognisable, the case shall be deemed to be a cognisable case, notwithstanding that the other offences are non-cognisable.

156. Police Officer’s power to investigate cognisable case. – (1) Any officer-in-charge of a police station may, without the order of a Magistrate, investigate any cognisable case which a Court having jurisdiction over the local area within the limits of such station would have power to inquire into or try under the provisions of Chapter XIII.

(2) No proceeding of a police officer in any such case shall at any stage be called in question on the ground that the case was one which such officer was not empowered under this section to investigate.

(3) Any Magistrate empowered under section 190 may order such an investigation as above mentioned.

157. Procedure of investigation. – (1) If, from information received or otherwise, an officer-in-charge of a police station has reason to suspect the commission of an offence which he is empowered under section 156 to investigate, he shall forthwith send a report of the same to a Magistrate empowered to take cognizance of such offence upon a police report and shall proceed in person, or shall depute one of his subordinate officers not being below such rank as the State Government may, by general or special order, prescribe in this behalf, to proceed, to the spot, to investigate the facts and circumstances of the case, and, if necessary, to take measures for the discovery and arrest of the offender :

Provided that –

(a) when information as to the commission of any such offence is given against any person by name and the case is not of a serious nature, the officer-in-charge of a police station need not proceed in person or depute a subordinate officer to make an investigation on the spot;

(b) if it appears to the officer-in-charge of a police station that there is no sufficient ground for entering on an investigation, he shall not investigate the case.

[Provided further that in relation to an offence of rape, the recording of statement of the victim shall be conducted at the residence of the victim or in the place of her choice and as far as practicable by a woman police officer in the presence of her parents or guardian or near relatives or social worker of the locality.]

(2) In each of the cases mentioned in clauses (a) and (b) of the proviso to sub-section (1), the officer-in-charge of the police station shall state in his report his reasons for not fully complying with the requirements of that sub-section, and, in the case mentioned in clause (b) of the said proviso, the officer shall also forthwith notify to the informant, if any, in such manner as may be prescribed by the State Government, the fact that he will not investigate the case or cause it to be investigated.

158. Report how submitted. – (1) Every report sent to a Magistrate under section 157 shall, if the State Government so directs, be submitted through such superior officer of police as the State Government, by general or special order, appoints in that behalf.

(2) Such superior officer may give such instructions to the officer-in-charge of the police station as he thinks fit, and shall, after recording such instructions on such report, transmit the same without delay to the Magistrate.

159. Power to hold investigation or preliminary inquiry. – Such Magistrate, on receiving such report, may direct an investigation, or, if he thinks fit, at once proceed, or depute any Magistrate subordinate to him to proceed, to hold a preliminary inquiry into or otherwise to dispose of, the case in the manner provided in this Code.

160. Police officer’s power to require attendance of witnesses. – (1) Any police officer making an investigation under this Chapter may, by order in writing require the attendance before himself of any person being within the limits of his own or any adjoining station who, from the information given or otherwise, appears to be acquainted with the facts and circumstances of the case; and such person shall attend as so required :

Provided that no male person [under the age of fifteen years or above the age of sixty-five years or a woman or a mentally or physically disabled person] shall be required to attend at any place other than the place in which such male person or woman resides.

(2) The State Government may, by rules made in this behalf, provide for the payment by the police officer of the reasonable expenses of every person, attending under sub-section (1) at any place other than his residence.

161. Examination of witnesses by police. – (1) Any police officer making an investigation under this Chapter, or any police officer not below such rank as the State Government may, by general or special order, prescribe in this behalf, acting on the requisition of such officer, may examine orally any person supposed to be acquainted with the facts and circumstances of the case.

(2) Such person shall be bound to answer truly all questions relating to such case put to him by officer, other than questions the answers to which would have a tendency to expose him to a criminal charge or to a penalty or forfeiture.

(3) The police officer may reduce into writing any statement made to him in the course of an examination under this section; and if he does so, he shall make a separate and true record of the statement of each such person whose statement he records.

[Provided that statement made under this sub-section may also be recorded by audio-video electronic means.]

[Provided further that the statement of a woman against whom an offence under section 354, section 354A, section 354B, section 354C, section 354D, section 376, [section 376A, section 376AB, section 376B, section 376C, section 376D, section 376DA, section 376DB,] section 376E or section 509 of the Indian Penal Code is alleged to have been committed or attempted shall be recorded, by a woman police officer or any woman officer.]

162. Statements to police not to be signed : Use of statements in evidence. – (1) No statement made by any person to a police officer in the course of an investigation under this Chapter, shall, if reduced to writing, be signed by the person making it; nor shall any such statement or any record thereof, whether in a police diary or otherwise, or any part of such statement of record, be used for any purpose, save as hereinafter provided, at any inquiry or trial in respect of any offence under investigation at the time when such statement was made :

Provided that when any witness is called for the prosecution in such inquiry or trial whose statement has been reduced into writing as aforesaid, any part of his statement, if duly proved, may be used by the accused, and with the permission of the Court, by the prosecution, to contradict such witness in the manner provided by section 145 of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 (1 of 1872); and when any part of such statement is so used, any part thereof may also be used in the re-examination of such witness, but for the purpose only of explaining any matter referred to in his cross-examination.

(2) Nothing in this section shall be deemed to apply to any statement falling within the provisions of clause (1) of section 32 of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 (1 of 1872), or to affect the provisions of section 27 of that Act.

Explanation. – An omission to state a fact or circumstances in the statement referred to in sub-section (1) may amount to contradiction if the same appears to be significant and otherwise relevant having regard to the context in which such omission occurs and whether any omission amounts to a contradiction in the particular context shall be a question of fact.

163. No inducement to be offered. – (1) No police officer or other person in authority shall offer or make, or cause to be offered or made, any such inducement, threat or promise as is mentioned in section 24 of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 (1 of 1872).

(2) But no police officer or person shall prevent, by any caution or otherwise, any person from making in the course of any investigation under this Chapter any statement which he may be disposed to make of his own free will :

Provided that nothing in this sub-section shall affect the provisions of sub-section (4) of section 164.

164. Recording of confessions and statements. – (1) Any Metropolitan Magistrate or Judicial Magistrate may, whether or not he has jurisdiction in the case, record any confession or statement made to him in the course of an investigation under this Chapter or under any other law for the time being in force, or at any time afterwards before the commencement of the inquiry or trial :

[Provided that any confession or statement made under this sub-Section may also be recorded by audio-video electronic means in the presence of the advocate of the person accused of an offence :

Provided further that no confession shall be recorded by a police officer on whom any power of a Magistrate has been conferred under any law for the time being in force.]

(2) The Magistrate shall, before recording any such confession, explain to the person making it that he is not bound to make a confession and that, if he does so, it may be used as evidence against him; and the Magistrate shall not record any such confession unless, upon questioning the person making it, he has reason to believe that it is being made voluntarily.

(3) If at any time before the confession is recorded, the person appearing before the Magistrate states that he is not willing to make the confession, the Magistrate shall not authorise the detention of such person in police custody.

(4) Any such confession shall be recorded in the manner provided in section 281 for recording the examination of an accused person and shall be signed by the person making the confession; and the Magistrate shall make a memorandum at the foot of such record to the following effect :

“I have explained to (name) that he is not bound to make a confession and that, if he does so, any confession he may make, may be used as evidence against him and I believe that this confession was voluntarily made. It was taken in my presence and was read over to the person making it and admitted by him to be correct, and it contains a full and true account of the statement made by him.

(Signed) A.B.

Magistrate.”

(5) Any statement (other than a confession) made under sub-section (1) shall be recorded in such manner hereinafter provided for the recording of evidence as is, in the opinion of the Magistrate, best fitted to the circumstances of the case; and the Magistrate shall have power to administer oath to the person whose statement is so recorded.

[(5A) (a) In cases punishable under section 354, section 354A, section 354B, section 354C, section 354D, sub-section (1) or sub-section (2) of section 376, [section 376A, section 376AB, section 376B, section 376C, section 376D, section 376DA, section 376DB,] section 376E or section 509 of the Indian Penal Code, the Judicial Magistrate shall record the statement of the person against whom such offence has been committed in the manner prescribed in sub-section (5), as soon as the commission of the offence is brought to the notice of the police:

Provided that if the person making the statement is temporarily or permanently mentally or physically disabled, the Magistrate shall take the assistance of an interpreter or a special educator in recording the statement:

Provided further that if the person making the statement is temporarily or permanently mentally or physically disabled, the statement made by the person, with the assistance of an interpreter or a special educator, shall be video-graphed.

(b) A statement recorded under clause (a) of a person, who is temporarily or permanently mentally or physically disabled, shall be considered a statement in lieu of examination-in-chief, as specified in section 137 of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 such that the maker of the statement can be cross-examined on such statement, without the need for recording the same at the time of trial.]

(6) The Magistrate recording a confession or statement under this section shall forward it to the Magistrate by whom the case is to be inquired into or tried.

[164A. Medical examination of the victim of rape – (1) Where, during the stage when an offence of committing rape or attempt to commit rape is under investigation, it is proposed to get the person of the woman with whom rape is alleged or attempted to have been committed or attempted, examined by a medical experts, such examination shall be conducted by a registered medical practitioner employed in a hospital run by the Government or a local authority and in the absence of such a practitioner, by any other registered medical practitioner, with the consent of such woman or of a person competent to give such consent on her behalf and such woman shall be sent to such registered medical practitioner within twenty-four hours from the time of receiving the information relating to the commissioner of such offence.

(2) The registered medical practitioner, to whom such woman is sent, shall, without delay, examine her person and prepare a report of his examination giving the following particulars, namely :-

(i) the name and address of the woman and of the person by whom she was brought;

(ii) the age of woman;

(iii) the description of material taken from the person of the woman for DNA profiling;

(iv) marks of injury, if any, on the person of the woman;

(v) general mental condition of the woman; and

(vi) the other material particulars in reasonable detail.

(3) The report shall state precisely the reasons for each conclusion arrived at.

(4) The report shall specifically record that the consent of the woman or of the person competent to give such consent on her behalf to such examination had been obtained.

(5) The exact time of commencement and competition of the examination shall also be noted in the report.

(6) The registered medial practitioner shall, without delay, forward the report to the investigation officer who shall forward it to the Magistrate referred to in Section 173 as part of the documents referred to in clause (a) of sub-section (5) of that Section.

(7) Nothing in this Section shall be construed as rendering lawful any examination without the consent of the woman or of any person competent to give such consent on her behalf.

Explanation – For the purposes of this Section, “examination” and “registered medical practitioner” shall have the same meanings as in Section 53.]

165. Search by police officer – (1) Whenever an officer-in-charge of a police station or a police officer making an investigation has reasonable grounds for believing that anything necessary for the purpose of an investigation into any offence which he is authorised to investigate may be found in any place within the limits of the police station of which he is incharge, or to which he is attached, and that such thing cannot in his opinion be otherwise obtained without undue delay, such officer may, after recording in writing the grounds of his belief and specifying in such writing, so far as possible, the thing for which search is to be made, search, or cause search to be made, for such thing in any place within the limits of such station.

(2) A police officer proceeding under sub-section (1), shall, if practicable, conduct the search in person.

(3) If he is unable to conduct the search in person, and there is no other person competent to make the search present at the time, he may, after recording in writing his reasons for so doing, require any officer subordinate to him to make the search, and he shall deliver to such subordinate officer an order in writing, specifying the place to be searched, and so far as possible, the thing for which search is to be made; and such subordinate officer may thereupon search for such thing in such place.

(4) The provisions of this Code as to search-warrants and the general provisions as to searches contained in section 100 shall, so far as may be, apply to a search made under this section.

(5) Copies of any record made under sub-section (1) or sub-section (3) shall forthwith be sent to the nearest Magistrate empowered to take cognizance of the offence, and the owner or occupier of the place searched shall, on application, be furnished, free of cost, with a copy of the same by the Magistrate.

166. When officer-in-charge of police station may require another to issue search-warrant. – (1) An officer-in-charge of a police station or a police officer not below the rank of sub-inspector making an investigation may require an officer-in-charge of another police station, whether in the same or a different district, to cause a search to be made in any place, in any case in which the former officer might cause such search to be made, within the limits of his own station.

(2) Such officer, on being so required, shall proceed according to the provisions of section 165, and shall forward the thing found, if any, to the officer at whose request the search was made.

(3) Whenever there is reason to believe that the delay occasioned by requiring an officer-in-charge of another police station to cause a search to be made under sub-section (1) might result in evidence of the commission of an offence being concealed or destroyed, it shall be lawful for an officer-in-charge of a police station or a police officer making any investigation under the Chapter to search, or cause to be searched, any place in the limits of another police station in accordance with the provisions of section 165, as if such place were within the limits of his own police station.

(4) Any officer conducting a search under sub-section (3) shall forthwith send notice of the search to the officer-in-charge of the police station within the limits of which such place is situate, and shall also send with such notice a copy of the list (if any) prepared under section 100, and shall also send to the nearest Magistrate empowered to take cognizance of the offence, copies of the records referred to in sub-sections (1) and (3) of section 165.

(5) The owner or occupier of the place searched shall, on application, be furnished free of cost with a copy of any record sent to Magistrate under sub-section (4).

[166A. Letter of request to competent authority for investigation in a country or place outside India. – (1) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Code, if, in the course of an investigation into an offence, an application is made by the investigating officer or any officer superior in rank to the investigating officer that evidence may be available in a country or place outside India, any Criminal court may issue a letter of request to a Court or an authority in that country or place competent to deal with such request to examine orally any person supposed to be acquainted with the facts and circumstances of the case and to record his statement made in the course of such examination and also to require such person or any other person to produce any document or thing which may be in his possession pertaining to the case and to forward all the evidence so taken or collected or the authenticated copies thereof or the things so collected to the Court issuing such letter.

(2) The letter of request shall be transmitted in such manner as the Central Government may specify in this behalf.

(3) Every statement recorded or document or thing received under sub-section (1) shall be deemed to be the evidence collected during the course of investigation under this Chapter.

166B. Letter of request from a country or place outside India to a Court or an authority for investigation in India. – (1) Upon receipt of a letter of request from a Court or an authority in a country or place outside India competent to issue such letter in that country or place for the examination of any person or production of any document or thing in relation to an offence under investigation in that country or place, the Central Government may, if it thinks fit, –

(i) forward the same to the Chief Metropolitan Magistrate or Chief Judicial Magistrate or such Metropolitan Magistrate or Judicial Magistrate as he may appoint in this behalf, who shall thereupon summon the person before him and record his statement or cause the document or thing to be produced; or

(ii) send the letter to any police officer for investigation, who shall thereupon investigate into the offence in the same manner, as if the offence had been committed within India.

(2) All the evidence taken or collected under sub-section (1), or authenticated copies thereof or the things so collected, shall be forwarded by the Magistrate or police officer, as the case may be, to the Central Government for transmission to the Court or the authority issuing the letter of request, in such manner as the Central Government may deem fit.]

167. Procedure when investigation cannot be completed in twenty-four hours. – (1) Whenever any person is arrested and detained in custody, and it appears that the investigation cannot be completed within the period of twenty-four hours fixed by section 57, and there are grounds for believing that the accusation or information is well-founded, the officer-in-charge of the police station or the police officer making the investigation, if he is not below the rank of sub-inspector, shall forthwith transmit to the nearest Judicial Magistrate a copy of the entries in the diary hereinafter prescribed relating to the case, and shall at the same time forward the accused to such Magistrate.

(2) The Magistrate to whom an accused person is forwarded under this section may, whether he has or has not jurisdiction to try the case, from time to time authorise the detention of the accused in such custody as such Magistrate thinks fit, for a term not exceeding fifteen days in the whole; and if he has no jurisdiction to try the case or commit it for trial, and considers further detention unnecessary, he may order the accused to be forwarded to a Magistrate having such jurisdiction :

Provided that –

[(a) the Magistrate may authorise the detention of the accused person, otherwise than in the custody of the police, beyond the period of fifteen days, if he is satisfied that adequate grounds exist for doing so, but no Magistrate shall authorise the detention of the accused person in custody under this paragraph for a total period exceeding, –

(i) ninety days, where the investigation relates to an offence punishable with death, imprisonment for life or imprisonment for a term of not less than ten years;

(ii) sixty days, where the investigation relates to any other offence, and, on the expiry of the said period of ninety days, or sixty days, as the case may be, the accused person shall be released on bail if he is prepared to and does furnish bail, and every person released on bail under this sub-section shall be deemed to be so released under the provisions of Chapter XXXIII for the purposes of that Chapter;]

[(b) no Magistrate shall authorise detention of the accused in custody of the police under this Section unless the accused is produced before him in person for the first time and subsequently every time till the accused remains in the custody of the police, but the Magistrate may extend further detention in judicial custody on production of the accused either in person or through the medium of electronic video linkage.]

(c) no Magistrate of the second class, not specially empowered in this behalf by the High Court, shall authorise detention in the custody of the police.

[Explanation I – For the avoidance of doubts, it is hereby declared that, notwithstanding the expiry of the period specified in paragraph (a), the accused shall be detained in custody so long as he does not furnish bail.]

[Explanation II. – If any question arises whether an accused person was produced before the Magistrate as required under clause (b), the production of the accused person may be proved by his signature on the order authorising detention or by the order certified by the Magistrate as to production of the accused person through the medium of electronic video linkage, as the case may be:]

[Provided further that in case of woman under eighteen years of is, the detention shall be authorised to be in the custody of a remand home or recognized social institution.]

[(2-A) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section or (1) sub-section (2), the officer-in-charge of the police station or the police officer making the investigation, if he is not below the rank of a sub-inspector, may, where a Judicial Magistrate is not available, transmit to the nearest Executive Magistrate, on whom the powers of a Judicial Magistrate, or Metropolitan Magistrate have been conferred, a copy of the entry in the diary, hereinafter prescribed relating to the case, and shall, at the same time, forward the accused to such Executive Magistrate, and thereupon such Executive Magistrate, may, for reasons to be recorded in writing, authorise the detention of the accused person in such custody as he may think fit for a term not exceeding seven days in the aggregate; and, on the expiry of the period of detention so authorised, the accused person shall be released on bail except where an order for further detention of the accused person has been made by a Magistrate competent to make such order, and where an order for such further detention is made, the period during which the accused person was detained in custody under the orders made by an Executive Magistrate under this sub-section, shall be taken into account in computing the period specified in paragraph (a) of the proviso to sub-section (2) :

Provided that before the expiry of the period aforesaid, the Executive Magistrate shall transmit to the nearest Judicial Magistrate the records of the case together with a copy of the entries in the diary relating to the case which was transmitted to him by the officer-in-charge of the police station or the police officer making the [investigation], as the case may be.]

(3) A Magistrate authorising under this section detention in the custody of the police shall record his reasons for so doing.

(4) Any Magistrate other than the Chief Judicial Magistrate making such order shall forward a copy of his order, with his reasons for making it, to the Chief Judicial Magistrate.

(5) If in any case triable by a Magistrate as a summons case, the investigation is not concluded within a period of six months from the date on which the accused was arrested, the Magistrate shall make an order stopping further investigation into the offence unless the officer making the investigation satisfies the Magistrate that for special reasons and in the interest of justice the continuation of the investigation beyond the period of six months is necessary.

(6) Where any order stopping further investigation into an offence has been made under sub-section (5), the Sessions Judge may, if he is satisfied, on an application made to him or otherwise, that further investigation into the offence ought to be made, vacate the order made under sub-section (5) and direct further investigation to be made into the offence subject to such directions with regard to bail and other matters as he may specify.

168. Report of investigation by subordinate police officer. – When any subordinate police officer has made any investigation under this Chapter, he shall report the result of such investigation to the officer-in-charge of the police station.

169. Release of accused when evidence deficient. – If, upon an investigation under this Chapter, it appears to the officer-in-charge of the police station that there is not sufficient evidence or reasonable ground of suspicion to justify the forwarding of the accused to a Magistrate, such officer shall, if such person is in custody, release him on his executing a bond, with or without sureties, as such officer may direct, to appear, if and when so required, before a Magistrate empowered to take cognizance of the offence on a police report, and to try the accused or commit him for trial.

170. Cases to be sent to Magistrate when evidence is sufficient. – (1) If, upon an investigation under this Chapter, it appears to the officer-in-charge of the police station that there is sufficient evidence or reasonable ground as aforesaid, such officer shall forward the accused under custody to a Magistrate empowered to take cognizance of the offence upon a police report and to try the accused or commit him for trial, or, if the offence is bailable and the accused is able to give security, shall take security from him for his appearance before such Magistrate on a day fixed and for the attendance from day to day before such Magistrate until otherwise directed.

(2) When the officer-in-charge of a police station forwards an accused person to a Magistrate or takes security for his appearance before such Magistrate under this section, he shall send to such Magistrate any weapon or other article which it may be necessary to produce before him, and shall require the complainant (if any) and so many of the persons who appear to such officer to be acquainted with facts and circumstances of the case as, he may think necessary, to execute a bond to appear before the Magistrate as thereby directed and prosecute or give evidence (as the case may be) in the matter of the charge against the accused.

(3) If the Court of the Chief Judicial Magistrate is mentioned in the bond, such Court shall be held to include any Court to which such Magistrate may refer the case for inquiry or trial, provided reasonable notice of such reference is given to such complainant or persons.

(4) The officer in whose presence the bond is executed shall deliver a copy thereof to one of the persons who executed it, and shall then send to the Magistrate the original with his report.

171. Complainant and witnesses not to be required to accompany police officer and not to be subject to restraint. – No complainant or witness on his way to any Court shall be required to accompany a police officer, or shall be subjected to unnecessary restraint or inconvenience, or required to give any security for his appearance other than his own bond :

Provided that, if any complainant or witness refuses to attend or to execute a bond as directed in section 170, the officer-in-charge of the police station may forward him in custody to the Magistrate, who may detain him in custody until he executes such bond, or until the hearing of the case is completed.

172. Diary of proceedings in investigation. – (1) Every police officer making an investigation under this Chapter shall day by day enter his proceedings in the investigation in a diary, setting forth the time at which the information reached him, the time at which he began and closed his investigation, the place or places visited by him, and statement of the circumstances ascertained through his investigation.

[(1-A) The statements of witnesses recorded during the course of investigation under Section 161 shall be inserted in the case diary.

(1-B) The diary referred to in sub-section (1) shall be a volume and duly paginated.]

(2) Any Criminal Court may send for the police diaries of a case under inquiry or trial in such Court, and may use such diaries, not as evidence in the case, but to aid it in such inquiry or trial.

(3) Neither the accused nor his agents shall be entitled to call for such diaries, nor shall he or they be entitled to see them merely because they are referred to by the Court; but, if they are used by the police officer who made them to refresh his memory, or if the court uses them for the purpose of contradicting such police officer, the provisions of section 161 or section 145, as the case may be, of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 (1 of 1872), shall apply.

173. Report of police officer on completion of investigation. – (1) Every investigation under this Chapter shall be completed without unnecessary delay.

[(1-A) The investigation in relation to [an offence under sections 376, 376A, 376AB, 376B, 376C, section 376D, section 376DA, section 376DB or section 376E of the Indian Penal Code shall be completed within two months.] from the date on which the information was recorded by the officer-in-charge of the police station.]

(2) (i) As soon as it is completed, the officer-in-charge of the police station shall forward to a Magistrate empowered to take cognizance of the offence on a police report, a report in the form prescribed by the State Government, stating –

(a) the names of the parties;

(b) the nature of the information;

(c) the names of the persons who appear to be acquainted with the circumstances of the case;

(d) whether any offence appears to have been committed and, if so, by whom;

(e) whether the accused has been arrested;

(f) whether he has been released on his bond and, if so, whether with or without sureties;

(g) whether he has been forwarded in custody under section 170.

[(h) Whether the report of medical examination of the woman has been attached where investigation relates to an offence under [Sections 376, 376A, 376AB, 376B, 376C, 376D, 376DA, 376DB]] [or section 376E of the Indian Penal Code of the Indian Penal Code, 1860.]

(ii) The officer shall also communicate, in such manner as may be prescribed by the State Government, the action taken by him, to the person, if any, by whom the information relating to the commission of the offence was first given.

(3) Where a superior officer of police has been appointed under section 158, the report shall, in any case in which the State Government by general or special order so directs, be submitted through that officer, and he may, pending the orders of the Magistrate, direct the officer-in-charge of the police station to make further investigation.

(4) Whenever it appears from a report forwarded under this section that the accused has been released on his bond, the Magistrate shall make such order for the discharge of such bond or otherwise as he thinks fit.

(5) When such report is in respect of a case to which section 170 applies, the police officer shall forward to the Magistrate along with the report –

(a) all documents or relevant extracts thereof on which the prosecution proposes to rely other than those already sent to the Magistrate during investigation;

(b) the statements recorded under section 161 of all the persons whom the prosecution proposes to examine as its witnesses.

(6) If the police officer is of opinion that any part of any such statement is not relevant to the subject-matter of the proceeding or that its disclosure to the accused is not essential in the interests of justice and is inexpedient in the public interest, he shall indicate that part of the statement and append a note requesting the Magistrate to exclude that part from the copies to be granted to the accused and stating his reasons for making such request.

(7) Where the police officer investigating the case finds it convenient so to do, he may furnish to the accused copies of all or any of the documents referred to in sub-section (5).

(8) Nothing in this section shall be deemed to preclude further investigation in respect of an offence after a report under sub-section (2) has been forwarded to the Magistrate and, where upon such investigation, the officer-in-charge of the police station obtains further evidence, oral or documentary, he shall forward to the Magistrate a further report or reports regarding such evidence in the form prescribed; and the provisions of sub-sections (2) to (6) shall, as far as may be, apply in relation to such report or reports as they apply in relation to a report forwarded under sub-section (2).

174. Police to enquire and report on suicide, etc. – (1) When the officer-in-charge of a police station or some other police officer specially empowered by the State Government in that behalf receives information that a person has committed suicide, or has been killed by another or by an animal or by machinery or by an accident, or has died under circumstances raising a reasonable suspicion that some other person has committed an offence, he shall immediately give intimation thereof to the nearest Executive Magistrate empowered to hold inquests, and unless otherwise directed by any rule prescribed by the State Government, or by any general or special order of the District or Sub-Divisional Magistrate, shall proceed to the place where the body of such deceased person is, and there, in the presence of two or more respectable inhabitants of the neighbourhood, shall make an investigation, and draw up a report of the apparent cause of death, describing such wounds, fractures, bruises, and other marks of injury as may be found on the body, and stating in what manner, or by what weapon or instrument (if any), such marks appear to have been inflicted.

(2) The report shall be signed by such officer and other persons, or by so many of them as concur therein, and shall be forthwith forwarded to the District Magistrate or the Sub-divisional Magistrate.

[(3) When –

(i) the case involves suicide by a woman within seven years of her marriage; or

(ii) the case relates to the death of a woman within seven years of her marriage in any circumstances raising a reasonable suspicion that some other person committed an offence in relation to such woman; or

(iii) the case relates to the death of a woman within seven years of her marriage and any relative of the woman has made a request in this behalf; or

(iv) there is any doubt regarding cause of death; or

(v) the police officer for any other reason considers it expedient so to do, he shall], subject to such rules as the State Government may prescribe in this behalf, forward the body, with a view to its being examined, to the nearest Civil Surgeon, or other qualified medical man appointed in this behalf by the State Government, if the state of the weather and the distance admit of its being so forwarded without risk of such putrefaction on the road as would render such examination useless.

(4) The following Magistrates are empowered to hold inquests, namely, any District Magistrate or Sub-Divisional Magistrate and any other Executive Magistrate specially empowered in this behalf by the State Government or the District Magistrate.

175. Power to summon persons. – (1) A police officer proceeding under section 174 may, by order in writing, summon two or more persons as aforesaid for the purpose of the said investigation, and any other person who appears to be acquainted with the facts of the case and every person so summoned shall be bound to attend and to answer truly all questions other than questions the answers to which would have a tendency to expose him to a criminal charge or to a penalty or forfeiture.

(2) If the facts do not disclose a cognisable offence to which section 170 applies, such persons shall not be required by the police officer to attend a Magistrate’s Court.

176. Inquiry by Magistrate into cause of death. – (1)[* * *] When the case is of the nature referred to in clause (i) or clause (ii) of sub-section (3) of section 174], the nearest Magistrate empowered to hold inquests shall, and in any other case mentioned in sub-section (1) of section 174, any Magistrate so empowered may hold an inquiry into the cause of death either instead of, or in addition to, the investigation held by the police officer; and if he does so, he shall have all the powers in conducting it which he would have in holding an inquiry into an offence.

[(1-A) Where –

(a) any person dies or disappears, or

(b) rape is alleged to have been committed on any woman.

while such person or woman is in the custody of the police or in any other custody authorised by the Magistrate or the Court, under this Code, in addition to the inquiry or investigation held by the police, an inquiry shall be held by the Judicial Magistrate or the Metropolitan as the case may be, within whose local jurisdiction the offence has been committed.]

(2) The Magistrate holding such an inquiry shall record the evidence taken by him in connection therewith in any manner hereinafter prescribed according to the circumstances of the case.

(3) Whenever such Magistrate considers it expedient to make an examination of the dead body of any person who has been already interred, in order to discover the cause of his death, the Magistrate may cause the body to be disinterred and examined.

(4) Where an enquiry is to be held under this section, the Magistrate shall, wherever practicable, inform the relatives of the deceased whose names and addresses are known, and shall allow them to remain present at the inquiry.

[(5) The Judicial Magistrate or the Metropolitan Magistrate or Executive Magistrate or police officer holding an inquiry or investigation, as the case may be, under sub-Section (1-A) shall, within twenty-four hours of the death of a person, forward the body with a view to its being examined to the nearest Civil Surgeon or other qualified medical person appointed in this behalf by the State Government, unless it is not possible to do so for reasons to be recorded in writing.]

Explanation. – In this section, the expression “relative” means parents, children, brothers, sisters and spouse.

CHAPTER XIII

Jurisdiction Of Criminal Courts In Inquiries And Trials

177. Ordinary place of inquiry and trial. – Every offence shall ordinarily be inquired into and tried by a Court within whose local jurisdiction it was committed.

178. Place of inquiry or trial. – (a) When it is uncertain in which of several local areas an offence was committed, or

(b) where an offence is committed partly in one local area and partly in another, or

(c) where an offence is a continuing one and continues to be committed in more local areas than one, or

(d) where it consists of several acts done in different local areas, it may be inquired into or tried by a Court having jurisdiction over any of such local areas.

179. Offence triable, where act is done or consequence ensues. – When an act is an offence by reason of anything which has been done and of a consequence which has ensued, the offence may be inquired into or tried by a Court within whose local jurisdiction such thing has been done or such consequence has ensued.

180. Place of trial where act is an offence by reason of relation to other offence. – When an act is an offence by reason of its relation to any other act which is also an offence or which would be an offence if the doer were capable of committing an offence, the first-mentioned offence may be inquired into or tried by a Court within whose local jurisdiction either act was done.

181. Place of trial in case of certain offences. – (1) Any offence of being a thug, or murder committed by a thug, of dacoity, of dacoity with murder, of belonging to a gang of dacoits, or of escaping from custody, may be inquired into or tried by a Court within whose local jurisdiction the offence was committed or the accused person is found.

(2) Any offence of kidnapping or abduction of a person may be inquired into or tried by a Court within whose local jurisdiction the person was kidnapped or abducted or was conveyed or concealed or detained.

(3) Any offence of theft, extortion or robbery may be inquired into or tried by a Court within whose local jurisdiction the offence was committed or the stolen property which is the subject of the offence was possessed by any person committing it, or by any person who received or retained such property knowing or having reason to believe it to be stolen property.

(4) Any offence of criminal misappropriation or of criminal breach of trust may be inquired into or tried by a Court within whose local jurisdiction the offence was committed or any part of the property which is the subject of the offence was received or retained, or was required to be returned or accounted for, by the accused person.

(5) Any offence which includes the possession of stolen property may be inquired into or tried by a Court within whose local jurisdiction the offence was committed or the stolen property was possessed by any person who received or retained it knowing or having reason to believe it to be stolen property.

182. Offences committed by letters, etc. – (1) Any offence which includes cheating may, if the deception is practised by means of letters or tele-communication messages, be inquired into or tried by any Court within whose local jurisdiction such letters or messages were sent or were received; and any offence of cheating and dishonestly inducing delivery of property may be inquired into or tried by a Court within whose local jurisdiction the property was delivered by the person deceived or was received by the accused person.

(2) Any offence punishable under section 494 or section 495 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) may be inquired into or tried by a Court within whose local jurisdiction the offence was committed or the offender last resided with his or her spouse by the first marriage, [or the wife by the first marriage has taken up permanent residence after the commission of the offence.]

183. Offence committed on journey or voyage. – When an offence is committed whilst the person by or against whom, or the thing in respect of which, the offence is committed is in the course of performing a journey or voyage, the offence may be inquired into or tried by a Court through or into whose local jurisdiction that person or thing passed in the course of that journey or voyage.

184. Place of trial for offences triable together. – Where –

(a) the offences committed by any person are such that he may be charged with, and tried at one trial for, each such offence by virtue of the provisions of section 219, section 220 or section 221, or

(b) the offence or offences committed by several persons are such that they may be charged with and tried together by virtue of the provisions of section 223, the offences may be inquired into or tried by any Court competent to inquire into or try any of the offences.

185. Power to order cases to be tried in different sessions divisions. – Notwithstanding anything contained in the preceding provisions of this Chapter, the State Government may direct that any cases or class of cases committed for trial in any district may be tried in any sessions division :

Provided that such direction is not repugnant to any direction previously issued by the High Court or the Supreme Court under the Constitution, or under this Code or any other law for the time being in force.

186. High Court to decide, the case of doubt, district where inquiry or trial shall take place. – Where two or more Courts have taken cognizance of the same offence and a question arises as to which of them ought to inquire into or try that offence, the question shall be decided –

(a) if the Courts are subordinate to the same High Court, by that High Court;

(b) if the Courts are not subordinate to the same High Court, by the High Court within the local limits of whose appellate criminal jurisdiction the proceedings were first commenced, and thereupon all other proceedings in respect of that offence shall be discontinued.

187. Power to issue summons or warrant for offence committed beyond local jurisdiction. – (1) When a Magistrate of the first class sees reason to believe that any person within his local jurisdiction has committed outside such jurisdiction (whether within or outside India) an offence which cannot, under the provisions of sections 177 to 185 (both inclusive), or any other law for the time being in force, be inquired into or tried within such jurisdiction but is under some law for the time being in force triable in India, such Magistrate may inquire into the offence as if it had been committed within such local jurisdiction and compel such person in the manner hereinbefore provided to appear before him, and send such person to the Magistrate having jurisdiction to inquire into or try such offence, or, if such offence is not punishable with death or imprisonment for life and such person is ready and willing to give bail to the satisfaction of the Magistrate acting under this section, take a bond with or without sureties for his appearance before the Magistrate having such jurisdiction.

(2) When there are more Magistrates than one having such jurisdiction and the Magistrate acting under this section cannot satisfy himself as to the Magistrate to or before whom such person should be sent or bound to appear, the case shall be reported for the orders of the High Court.

188. Offence committed outside India. – When an offence is committed outside India –

(a) by a citizen of India, whether on the high seas or elsewhere; or

(b) by a person, not being such citizen, on any ship or aircraft registered in India, he may be dealt with in respect of such offence as if it had been committed at any place within India at which he may be found :

Provided that, notwithstanding anything in any of the preceding sections of this Chapter, no such offence shall be inquired into or tried in India except with the previous sanction of the Central Government.

189. Receipt of evidence relating to offences committed outside India. – When any offence alleged to have been committed in a territory outside India is being inquired into or tried under the provisions of section 188, the Central Government may, if it thinks fit, direct that copies of depositions made or exhibits produced before a judicial officer in or for that territory or before a diplomatic or consular representative of India in or for that territory shall be received as evidence by the Court holding such inquiry or trial in any case in which such Court might issue a commission for taking evidence as to the matters to which such depositions or exhibits relate.

CHAPTER XIV

Conditions Requisite For Initiation Of Proceedings

190. Cognizance of offences by Magistrates. – (1) Subject to the provisions of this Chapter, any Magistrate of the first class, and any Magistrate of the second class specially empowered in this behalf under sub-section (2), may take cognizance of any offence –

(a) upon receiving a complaint of facts which constitute such offence;

(b) upon a police report of such facts;

(c) upon information received from any person other than a police officer or upon his own knowledge, that such offence has been committed.

(2) The Chief Judicial Magistrate may empower any Magistrate of the second class to take cognizance under sub-section (1) of such offences as are within his competence to inquire into or try.

191. Transfer on application of the accused. – When a Magistrate takes cognizance of an offence under clause (c) of sub-section (1) of section 190, the accused shall, before any evidence is taken, be informed that he is entitled to have the case inquired into or tried by another Magistrate, and if the accused or any of the accused, if there be more than one, objects to further proceedings before the Magistrate taking cognizance, the case shall be transferred to such other Magistrate as may be specified by the Chief Judicial Magistrate in this behalf.

192. Making over of cases to Magistrates. – (1) Any Chief Judicial Magistrate may, after taking cognizance of an offence, make over the case for inquiry or trial to any competent Magistrate subordinate to him.

(2) Any Magistrate of the first class empowered in this behalf by the Chief Judicial Magistrate may, after taking cognizance of an offence, make over the case for inquiry or trial to such other competent Magistrate as the Chief Judicial Magistrate may, by general or special order, specify and thereupon such Magistrate may hold the inquiry or trial.

193. Cognizance of offences by Courts of Session. – Except as otherwise expressly provided by this Code or by any other law for the time being in force, no Court of Session shall take cognizance of any offence as a Court of original jurisdiction unless the case has been committed to it by a Magistrate under this Code.

194. Additional and Assistant Sessions Judges to try cases made over to them. – An Additional Sessions Judge or Assistant Sessions Judge shall try such cases as the Sessions Judge of the division may, by general or special order, make over to him for trial or as the High Court, by special order, direct him to try.

195. Prosecution for contempt of lawful authority of public servants, for offences against public justice and for offences relating to documents given in evidence. – (1) No Court shall take cognizance –

(a) (i) of any offence punishable under sections 172 to 188 (both inclusive) of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), or

(ii) of any abetment of, or attempt to commit, such offence, or

(iii) of any criminal conspiracy to commit such offence, except on the complaint in writing of the public servant concerned or other public servant to whom he is administratively subordinate;

(b) (i) of any offence punishable under any of the following sections of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), namely, sections 193 to 196 (both inclusive), 199, 200, 205 to 211 (both inclusive) and 228, when such offence is alleged to have been committed in, or in relation to, any proceeding in any Court, or

(ii) of any offence described in section 463, or punishable under section 471, section 475 or section 476 of the said Code, when such offence is alleged to have been committed in respect of a document produced or given in evidence in a proceeding in any Court, or

(iii) of any criminal conspiracy to commit, or attempt to commit, or the abetment of, any offence specified in sub-clause (i) or sub-clause (ii),

[except on the complaint in writing of that Court or by such officer of the Court as that Court may authorise in writing in this behalf, or of some other Court to which that Court is subordinate.]

(2) Where a complaint has been made by a public servant under clause (a) of sub-section (1) any authority to which he is administratively subordinate may order the withdrawal of the complaint and send a copy of such order to the Court; and upon its receipt by the Court, no further proceedings shall be taken on the complaint :

Provided that no such withdrawal shall be ordered if the trial in the Court of first instance has been concluded.

(3) In clause (b) of sub-section (1), the term “Court” means a Civil, Revenue or Criminal Court and includes a Tribunal constituted by or under a Central, Provincial or State Act, if declared by that Act to be a Court for the purposes of this section.

(4) For the purposes of clause (b) of sub-section (1), a Court shall be deemed to be subordinate to the Court to which appeals ordinarily lie from the appealable decrees or sentences of such former Court, or in the case of a Civil Court from whose decrees no appeal ordinarily lies, to the principal Court having ordinarily original civil jurisdiction within whose local jurisdiction such Civil Court is situate :

Provided that –

(a) where appeals lie to more than one Court, the Appellate Court of inferior jurisdiction shall be the Court to which such Court shall be deemed to be subordinate;

(b) where appeals lie to a Civil and also to a Revenue Court, such Court shall be deemed to be subordinate to the Civil or Revenue Court according to the nature of the case or proceeding in connection with which the offence is alleged to have been committed.

[195-A. Procedure for witnesses in case of threatening, etc. – A witness or any other person may file complaint in relation to an offence under Section 195-A of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860).]

196. Prosecution for offences against the State and for criminal conspiracy to commit such offence. – (1) No Court shall take cognizance of –

(a) any offence punishable under Chapter VI or under section 153-A, [section 295-A or sub-section (1) of section 505] of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), or

(b) a criminal conspiracy to commit such offence, or

(c) any such abetment, as is described in section 108-A of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), except with the previous sanction of the Central Government or of the State Government.

[(1-A) No Court shall take cognizance of –

(a) any offence punishable under section 153-B or sub-section (2) or sub-section (3) of section 505 of the Indian Penal Code, or

(b) a criminal conspiracy to commit such offence, except with the previous sanction of the Central Government or of the State Government or of the District Magistrate.]

(2) No Court shall take cognizance of the offence of any criminal conspiracy punishable under section 120-B of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), other than a criminal conspiracy to commit [an offence] punishable with death, imprisonment for life or rigorous imprisonment for a term of two years or upwards, unless the State Government or the District Magistrate has consented in writing to the initiation of the proceedings :

Provided that where the criminal conspiracy is one to which the provisions of section 195 apply, no such consent shall be necessary.

(3) The Central Government or the State Government may, before according sanction [under sub-section (1) or sub-section (1-A) and the District Magistrate may, before according sanction under sub-section (1-A)] and the State Government or the District Magistrate may, before giving consent under sub-section (2), order a preliminary investigation by a police officer not being below the rank of Inspector, in which case such police officer shall have the powers referred to in sub-section (3) of section 155.

197. Prosecution of Judges and public servants. – (1) When any person who is or was a Judge or Magistrate or a public servant not removable from his officer save by or with the sanction of the Government, is accused of any offence alleged to have been committed by him while acting or purporting to act in the discharge of his official duty, no Court shall take cognizance of such offence except with the previous sanction-

(a) in the case of a person who is employed or, as the case may be, was at the time of commission of the alleged offence employed, in connection with the affairs of the Union, of the Central Government;

(b) in the case of a person who is employed or, as the case may be, was at the time of commission of the alleged offence employed, in connection with the affairs of a State of the State Government :

[Provided that where the alleged offence was committed by a person referred to in clause (b) during the period while a Proclamation issued under clause (1) of Article 356 of the Constitution was in force in a State, clause (b) will apply as if for the expression “State Government” occurring therein, the expression “Central Government” were substituted.]

[Explanation. – For the removal of doubts it is hereby declared that no sanction shall be required in case of a public servant accused of any offence alleged to have been committed under section 166A, section 166B, section 354, section 354A, section 354B, section 354C, section 354D, section 370, section 375, section 376, [section 376A, section 376AB, section 376C, section 376D, section 376DA, section 376DB,] or section 509 of the Indian Penal Code.]

(2) No Court shall take cognizance of any offence alleged to have been committed by any member of the Armed Forces of the Union while acting or purporting to act in the discharge of his official duty, except with the previous sanction of the Central Government.

(3) The State Government may, by notification, direct that the provisions of sub-section (2) shall apply to such class or category of the members(of the Forces charged with the maintenance of public order as may be specified therein, wherever they may be serving, and thereupon the provisions of that sub-section will apply as if for the expression “Central Government” occurring therein the expression “State Government” were substituted.

[(3-A) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (3), no court shall take cognizance of any offence, alleged to have been committed by any member of the Forces charged with the maintenance of public order in a State while acting or purporting to act in the discharge of his official duty during the period while a Proclamation issued under clause (1) of Article 356 of the Constitution was in force therein, except with the previous sanction of the Central Government.

(3-B) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in this Code or any other law, it is hereby declared that any sanction accorded by the State Government or any cognizance taken by a Court upon such sanction, during the period commencing on the 20th day of August, 1991 and ending with the date immediately preceding the date on which the Code of Criminal Procedure (Amendment) Act, 1991, receives the assent of the President, with respect to an offence alleged to have been committed during the period while a Proclamation issued under clause (1) of Article 356 of the Constitution was in force in the State, shall be invalid and it shall be competent for the Central Government in such matter to accord sanction and for the court to take cognizance thereon.]

(4) The Central Government or the State Government, as the case may be, may determine the person by whom, the manner in which, and the offence or offences for which, the prosecution of such Judge, Magistrate or public servant is to be conducted, and may specify the Court before which the trial is to be held.

198. Prosecution for offences against marriage. – (1) No Court shall take cognizance of an offence punishable under Chapter XX of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) except upon a complaint made by some person aggrieved by the offence :

Provided that –

(a) where such person is under the age of eighteen years, or is an idiot or a lunatic, or is from sickness or infirmity unable to make a complaint, or is a woman who, according to the local customs and manners, ought not to be compelled to appear in public, some other person may, with the leave of the Court, make a complaint on his or her behalf;

(b) where such person is the husband and he is serving in any of the Armed Forces of the Union under conditions which are certified by his Commanding Officer as precluding him from obtaining leave of absence to enable him to make a complaint in person, some other person authorised by the husband in accordance with the provisions of sub-section (4) may make a complaint on his behalf;

(c) where the person aggrieved by an offence punishable under [section 494 or 495] of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) is the wife, complaint may be made on her behalf by her father, mother, brother, sister, son or daughter or by her father’s or mother’s brother or sister or, [with the leave of the Court, by any other person related to her by blood, marriage or adoption.]

(2) For the purposes of sub-section (1), no person other than the husband of the woman shall be deemed to be aggrieved by any offence punishable under section 497 or section 498 of the said Code :

Provided that in the absence of the husband, some person who had care of the woman on his behalf at the time when such offence was committed may, with the leave of the Court, make a complaint, on his behalf.

(3) When in any case falling under clause (a) of the proviso to sub-section (1), the complaint is sought to be made on behalf of a person under the age of eighteen years or of a lunatic by a person who has not been appointed by a competent authority to be the guardian of the person of the minor or lunatic, and the Court is satisfied that there is a guardian so appointed or declared, the Court shall, before granting the application for leave, cause notice to be given to such guardian and give him a reasonable opportunity of being heard.

(4) The authorisation referred to in clause (b) of the proviso to sub-section (1), shall be in writing, shall be signed or otherwise attested by the husband, shall contain a statement to the effect that he has been informed of the allegations upon which the complaint is to be founded, shall be countersigned by his Commanding Officer, and shall be accompanied by a certificate signed by that Officer to the effect that leave of absence for the purpose of making a complaint in person cannot for the time being be granted to the husband.

(5) Any document purporting to be such an authorisation and complying with the provisions of sub-section (4), and any document purporting to be a certificate required by that sub-section shall, unless the contrary is proved, be presumed to be genuine and shall be received in evidence.

(6) No Court shall take cognizance of an offence under section 376 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), where such offence consists of sexual intercourse by a man with his own wife, the wife being under [eighteen years of age], if more than one year has elapsed from the date of the commission of the offence.

(7) The provisions of this section apply to the abetment of, or attempt to commit, an offence as they apply to the offence.

[198-A. Prosecution of offences under section 498-A of the Indian penal Code. – No Court shall take cognizance of an offence punishable under section 498-A of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) except upon a police report of facts which constitute such offence or upon a complaint made by the person aggrieved by the offence or by her father, mother, brother, sister or by her father’s or mother’s brother or sister or, with the leave of the Court, by any other person related to her by blood, marriage or adoption.]

[198B. Cognizance of Offence. – No Court shall take cognizance of an offence punishable under section 376B of the Indian Penal Code where the persons are in a marital relationship, except upon prima facie satisfaction of the facts which constitute the offence upon a complaint having been filed or made by the wife against the husband.]

199. Prosecution for defamation. – (1) No Court shall take cognizance of an offence punishable under Chapter XXI of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), except upon a complaint made by some person aggrieved by the offence :

Provided that where such person is under the age of eighteen years, or is an idiot or a lunatic or is from sickness or infirmity unable to make a complaint, or is a woman who, according to the local customs and manners, ought not to be compelled to appear in public, some other person may, with the leave of the Court, make a complaint on his or her behalf.

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Code, when any offence falling under Chapter XXI of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) is alleged to have been committed against a person who, at the time of such commission, is the President of India, the Vice-President of India, the Governor of a State, the Administrator of a Union Territory, or a Minister of the Union or of a State, or any other public servant employed in connection with the affairs of the Union or of a State in respect of his conduct in the discharge of his public functions a Court of Session may take cognizance of such offence, without the case being committed to it, upon a complaint in writing made by the Public Prosecutor.

(3) Every complaint referred to in sub-section (2) shall set forth the facts which constitute the offence alleged, the nature of such offence and such other particulars as are reasonably sufficient to give notice to the accused of the offence alleged to have been committed by him.

(4) No complaint under sub-section (2) shall be made by the Public Prosecutor except with the previous sanction –

(a) of the State Government, in the case of a person who is or has been the Governor of that State or a Minister of that Government;

(b) of the State Government, in the case of any other public servant employed in connection with the affairs of the State;

(c) of the Central Government, in any other case.

(5) No Court of Session shall take cognizance of an offence under sub-section (2) unless the complaint is made within six months from the date on which the offence is alleged to have been committed.

(6) Nothing in this section shall affect the right of the person against whom the offence is alleged to have been committed, to make a complaint in respect of that offence before a Magistrate having jurisdiction or the power of such Magistrate to take cognizance of the offence upon such complaint.

CHAPTER XV

Complaints To Magistrates

200. Examination of complainant. – A Magistrate taking cognizance of an offence on complaint shall examine upon oath the complainant and the witnesses present, if any, and the substance of such examination shall be reduced to writing and shall be signed by the complainant and the witnesses, and also by the Magistrate :

Provided that when the complaint is made in writing, the Magistrate need not examine the complainant and the witnesses –

(a) if a public servant acting or purporting to act in the discharge of his official duties or a Court has made the complaint; or

(b) if the Magistrate makes over the case for inquiry or trial to another Magistrate under section 192 :

Provided further that if the Magistrate makes over the case to another Magistrate under section 192 after examining the complainant and the witnesses, the latter Magistrate need not re-examine them.

201. Procedure by Magistrate not competent to take cognizance of the case. – If the complaint is made to a Magistrate who is not competent to take cognizance of the offence, he shall, –

(a) if the complaint is in writing, return it for presentation to the proper Court with an endorsement to that effect;

(b) if the complaint is not in writing, direct complainant to the proper Court.

202. Postponement of issue of process. – (1) Any Magistrate, on receipt of a complaint of an offence of which he is authorised to take cognizance or which has been made over to him under section 192 may, if he thinks fit, [and shall, in a case where the accused is residing at a place beyond the area in which he exercises his jurisdiction] postpone the issue of process against the accused, and either inquire into the case himself or direct an investigation to be made by a police officer or by such other person as he thinks fit, for the purpose of deciding whether or not there is sufficient ground for proceeding :

Provided that no such direction for investigation shall be made, –

(a) where it appears to the Magistrate that the offence complained of is triable exclusively by the Court of Session; or

(b) where the complaint has not been made by a Court, unless the complainant and the witnesses present (if any) have been examined on oath under section 200.

(2) In an inquiry under sub-section (1), the Magistrate may, if he thinks fit, take evidence of witnesses on oath :

Provided that if it appears to the Magistrate that the offence complained of is triable exclusively by the Court of Session, he shall call upon the complainant to produce all his witnesses and examine them on oath.

(3) If an investigation under sub-section (1) is made by a person not being a police officer, he shall have for that investigation all the powers conferred by this Court on an officer-in-charge of a police station except the power to arrest without warrant.

203. Dismissal of complaint. – If, after considering the statement on oath (if any) of the complainant and of the witnesses and the result of the inquiry or investigation (if any) under section 202, the Magistrate is of opinion that there is no sufficient ground for proceeding, he shall dismiss the complaint, and in every such case he shall briefly record his reasons for so doing.

CHAPTER XVI

Commencement Of Proceedings Before Magistrates

204. Issue of process. – (1) If in the opinion of a Magistrate taking cognizance of an offence there is sufficient ground for proceeding, and the case appears to be –

(a) a summons case, he shall issue his summons for the attendance of the accused, or

(b) a warrant case, he may issue a warrant, or, if he thinks fit, a summons, for causing the accused to be brought or to appear at a certain time before such Magistrate or (if he has no jurisdiction himself) some other Magistrate having jurisdiction.

(2) No summons or warrant shall be issued against the accused under sub-section (1) until a list of the prosecution witnesses has been filed.

(3) In a proceeding instituted upon a complaint made in writing, every summons or warrant issued under sub-section (1) shall be accompanied by a copy of such complaint.

(4) When by any law for the time being in force any process-fees or other fees are payable, no process shall be issued until the fees are paid and, if such fees are not paid within a reasonable time, the Magistrate may dismiss the complaint.

(5) Nothing in this section shall be deemed to affect the provisions of section 87.

205. Magistrate may dispense with personal attendance of accused. – (1) Whenever a Magistrate issues a summons, he may, if he sees reason so to do, dispense with the personal attendance of the accused and permit him to appear by his pleader.

(2) But the Magistrate inquiring into or trying the case, may, in his discretion, at any stage of the proceedings, direct the personal attendance of the accused, and, if necessary, enforce such attendance in the manner hereinbefore provided.

206. Special summons in case of petty offence. – (1) If, in the opinion of a Magistrate taking cognizance of a petty offence, the case may be summarily disposed of under section 260, [or Section 261] the Magistrate shall, except where he is, for reasons to be recorded in writing of a contrary opinion, issue summons to the accused requiring him either to appear in person or by pleader before the Magistrate on a specified date, or if he desires to plead guilty to the charge without appearing before the Magistrate, to transmit before the specified date, by post or by messenger to the Magistrate, the said plea in writing and the amount to fine specified in the summons or if he desires to appear by pleader and to plead guilty to the charge through such pleader, to authorise, in writing, the pleader to plead guilty to the charge on his behalf and to pay the fine through such pleader :

Provided that the amount of the fine specified in such summons shall not exceed [one thousand rupees].

(2) For the purposes of this section, “petty offence” means any offence punishable only with fine not exceeding one thousand rupees, but does not include any offence punishable under the [Motor Vehicles Act, 1939 (4 of 1939)]or under any other law which provides for convicting the accused person in his absence on a plea of guilty.

[(3) The State Government may, by notification, specially empower any Magistrate to exercise the powers conferred by sub-section (1) in relation to any offence which is compoundable under section 320 or any offence punishable with imprisonment for a term not exceeding three months, or with fine, or with both where the Magistrate is of opinion that, having regard to the facts and circumstances of the case, the imposition of fine only would meet the ends of justice.]

207. Supply to the accused of copy of police report and other documents. – In any case where the proceeding has been instituted on a police report, the Magistrate shall without delay furnish to the accused, free of post, a copy of each of the following:-

(i) the police report;

(ii) the first information report recorded under section 154;

(iii) the statements recorded under sub-section (3) of section 161 of all persons whom the prosecution proposes to examine as its witnesses, excluding there frorm any part in regard to which a request for exclusion has been made by the police officer under sub-section (6) of section 173;

(iv) the confessions and statements, if any, recorded under section 164;

(v) any other document or relevant extract thereof forwarded to the Magistrate with the police report under sub-section (5) of section 173 :

Provided that the Magistrate may, after perusing any such part of a statement as is referred to in clause (iii) and considering the reasons given by the police officer for the request, direct that a copy of that part of the statement or of such portion thereof as the Magistrate thinks proper, shall be furnished to the accused :

Provided further that if the Magistrate is satisfied that any document referred to in clause (v) is voluminous, he shall, instead of furnishing the accused with a copy thereof, direct that he will only be allowed to inspect it either personally or through pleader in Court.

208. Supply of copies of statements and document to accused in other cases triable by Court of Session. – Where, in a case instituted otherwise than on a police report, it appears to the Magistrate issuing process under section 204 that the offence is triable exclusively by the Court of Session, the Magistrate shall without delay furnish to the accused, free of cost, a copy of each of the following :

(i) the statements recorded under section 200 or section 202, of all persons examined by the Magistrate;

(ii) the statements and confessions, if any, recorded under section 161 or section 164;

(iii) any documents produced before the Magistrate on which the prosecution proposes to rely :

Provided that if the Magistrate is satisfied that any such document is voluminous, he shall, instead of furnishing the accused with a copy thereof, direct that he will only be allowed to inspect it either personally or through pleader in Court.

209. Commitment of case to Court of Session when offence is triable exclusively by it. – When in a case instituted on a police report or otherwise, the accused appears or is brought before the Magistrate and it appears to the Magistrate that the offence is triable exclusively by the Court of Sessions, he shall –

[(a) commit, after complying with the provisions of section 207 or section 208, as the case may be, the case to the Court of Session, and subject to the provisions of this Code relating to bail, remand the accused to custody until such commitment has been made;]

(b) subject to the provisions of this Code relating to bail, remand the accused to custody during, and until the conclusion of the trial;

(c) send to that Court the record of the case and the documents and articles, if any, which are to be produced in evidence;

(d) notify the Public Prosecutor of the commitment of the case to the Court of Session.

210. Procedure to be followed when there is a complaint case and police investigation in respect of the same offence. – (1) When in a case instituted otherwise than on a police report (hereinafter referred to as a complaint case), it is made to appear to the Magistrate, during the course of the inquiry or trial held by him, that an investigation by the police is in progress in relation to the offence which is the subject-matter of the inquiry or trial held by him, the Magistrate shall stay the proceedings of such enquiry or trial and call for a report on the matter from the police officer conducting the investigation.

(2) If a report is made by the investigating police officer under section 173 and on such report cognizance of any offence is taken by the Magistrate against any person who is an accused in the complaint case, the Magistrate shall inquire into or try together the complaint case and the case arising out of the police report as if both the cases were instituted on a police report.

(3) If the police report does not relate to any accused in the complaint case or if the Magistrate does not take cognizance of any offence on the police report, he shall proceed with the inquiry or trial, which was stayed by him, in accordance with the provisions of this Code.

CHAPTER XVII

The Charge

A. Form of Charges

211. Contents of charge. – (1) Every charge under this Code shall state the offence with which the accused is charged.

(2) If the law which creates the offence gives it any specific name, the offence may be described in the charge by that name only.

(3) If the law which creates the offence does not give it any specific name, so much of the definition of the offence must be stated as to give the accused notice of the matter with which he is charged.

(4) The law and section of the law against which the offence is said to have been committed shall be mentioned in the charge.

(5) The fact that the charge is made is equivalent to a statement that every legal condition required by law to constitute the offence charged was fulfilled in the particular case.

(6) The charge shall be written in the language of the Court.

(7) If the accused, having been previously convicted of any offence, is liable, by reason of such previous conviction, to enhanced punishment, or to punishment of a different kind, for a subsequent offence, and it is intended to prove such previous conviction for the purpose of affecting the punishment which the court may think fit to award for the subsequent offence, the fact, date and place of the previous conviction shall be stated in the charge; and if such statement has been omitted, the Court may add it at any time before sentence is passed.

Illustrations

(a) A is charged with the murder of B. This is equivalent to a statement that A’s act fell within the definition of murder given in sections 299 and 300 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860); that it did not fall within any of the general exceptions of the said Code; and that, if it did fall within any of the five exceptions to section 300, or that, if it did fall within Exception I, one or other of the three provisos to that exception applied to it.

(b) A is charge under section 326 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), with voluntarily causing grievous hurt to B by means of an instrument for shooting. This is equivalent to a statement that the case was not provided for by section 335 of the said Code, and that the general exceptions did not apply to it.

(c) A is accused of murder, cheating, theft, extortion, adultery or criminal intimidation, or using a false property-mark. The charge may state that A committed murder, or cheating, or theft, or extortion, or adultery, or criminal intimidation, or that he used a false property-mark, without reference to the definition of those crimes contained in the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860); but the sections under which the offence is punishable must, in each instance, be referred to in the charge.

(d) A is charged under section 184 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) with intentionally obstructing a sale of property offered for sale by the lawful authority of a public servant. The charge should be in those words.

212. Particulars as to time, place and person. – (1) The charge shall contain such particulars as to the time and place of the alleged offence, and the person (if any) against whom, or the thing (if any) in respect of which it was committed, as are reasonably sufficient to give the accused notice of the matter with which he is charged.

(2) When the accused is charged with criminal breach of trust or dishonest misappropriation of money or other movable property, it shall be sufficient to specify the gross sum or, as the case may be, describe the movable property in respect of which the offence is alleged to have been committed, without specifying particular items or exact dates, and the charge so framed shall be deemed to be a charge of one offence within the meaning of section 219 :

Provided that the time included between the first and last of such dates shall not exceed one year.

213. When manner of committing offence must be stated. – When the nature of the case is such that the particulars mentioned in sections 211 and 212 do not give the accused sufficient notice of the matter with which he is charged, the charge shall also contain such particular of the manner in which the alleged offence was committed as will be sufficient for that purpose.

Illustrations

(a) A is accused of the theft of a certain article at a certain time and place. The charge need not set out the manner in which the theft was effected.

(b) A is accused of cheating B at a given time and place. The charge must set out the manner in which A cheated B.

(c) A is accused of giving false evidence at a given time and place. The charge must set out that portion of the evidence given by A which is alleged to be false.

(d) A is accused of obstructing B, a public servant, in the discharge of his public functions at a given time and place. The charge must set out the manner in which A obstructed B in the discharge of his functions.

(e) A is accused of the murder of B at a given time and place. The charge need not state the manner in which A murdered B.

(f) A is accused of disobeying a direction of the law with intent to save B from punishment. The charge must set out the disobedience charged and the law infringed.

214. Words in charge taken in sense of law under which offence is punishable. – In every charge words used in describing an offence shall be deemed to have been used in the sense attached to them respectively by the law under which such offence is punishable.

215. Effect of errors. – No error in stating either the offence or the particulars required to be stated in the charge, and no omission to state the offence or those particulars, shall be regarded at any stage of the case as material, unless the accused was in fact misled by such error or omission, and it has occasioned a failure of justice.

Illustrations

(a) A is charged under section 242 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), with “having been in possession of counterfeit coin, having known at the time when be became possessed thereof that such coin was counterfeit”, the word “fraudulently” being omitted in the charge. Unless it appears that A was in fact misled by this omission, the error shall not be regarded as material.

(b) A is charged with cheating B, and the manner in which he cheated B is not set out in the charge, or is set out incorrectly. A defends himself, calls witnesses and gives his own account of the transaction. The Court may infer from this that the omission to set out the manner of the cheating is not material.

(c) A is charged with cheating B, and the manner in which he cheated B is not set out in the charge. There were many transactions between A and B, and A had no means of knowing to which of them the charge referred, and offered no defence. The Court may infer from such facts that the omission to set out the manner of the cheating was, in the case, a material error.

(d) A is charged with the murder of Khoda Baksh on the 21st January, 1882. In fact, the murdered person’s name was Haider Baksh, and the date of the murder was the 20th January, 1882. A was never charged with any murder but one, and had heard the inquiry before the Magistrate, which referred exclusively to the case of Haider Baksh. The Court may infer from these facts that A was not misled, and that the error in the charge was immaterial.

(e) A was charged with murdering Haider Baksh on 20th January, 1882, and Khoda Baksh (who tried to arrest him for that murder) on the 21st January, 1882. When charged for the murder of Haider Baksh he was tried for the murder or Khoda Baksh. The witnesses present in his defence were witnesses in the case of Haider Baksh. The Court may infer from this that A was misled, and that the error was material.

216. Court may alter charge. – (1) Any Court may alter or add to any charge at any time before judgment is pronounced.

(2) Every such alteration or addition shall be read and explained to the accused.

(3) If the alteration or addition to a charge is such that proceeding immediately with the trial is not likely, in the opinion of the Court, to prejudice the accused in his defence or the prosecutor in the conduct of the case, the Court may, in its discretion, after such alteration or addition has been made, proceed with the trial as if the altered or added charge has been the original charge.

(4) If the alteration or addition is such that proceeding immediately with the trial is likely, in the opinion of the Court, to prejudice the accused or the prosecutor as aforesaid, the Court may, either direct a new trial or adjourn the trial for such period as may be necessary.

(5) If the offence stated in the altered or added charge is one for the prosecution of which previous sanction is necessary, the case shall not be proceeded with until such sanction is obtained, unless sanction has been already obtained for a prosecution on the same facts as those on which the altered or added charge is founded.

217. Recall of witnesses when charge altered. – Whenever a charge is altered or added to by the Court after the commencement of the trial, the prosecutor and the accused shall be allowed –

(a) to recall or re-summon, and examine with reference to such alteration or addition, any witness who may have been examined, unless the court, for reasons to be recorded in writing, considers that the prosecutor or the accused, as the case may be, desires to recall or re-examine such witness for the purpose of vexation or delay or for defeating the ends of justice;

(b) also to call any further witness whom the Court may think to be material.

B. Joinder of Charges

218. Separate charges for distinct offences. – (1) For every distinct offence of which any person is accused there shall be a separate charge, and every such charge shall be tried separately :

Provided that where the accused person, by an application in writing, so desires and the Magistrate is of opinion that such person is not likely to be prejudiced thereby, the Magistrate may try together all or any number of the charges framed against such person.

(2) Nothing in sub-section (1) shall affect the operation of the provisions of Sections 219, 220, 221 and 223.

Illustration

A is accused of a theft on one occasion, and of causing grievous hurt on another occasion. A must be separately charged and separately tried for the theft and causing grievous hurt.

219. Three offences of same kind within year may be charged together. – (1) When a person is accused of more offences than one of the same kind committed within the space of twelve months from the first to the last of such offences, whether in respect of the same person or not, he may be charged with, and tried at one trial for, any number of them not exceeding three.

(2) Offences are of the same kind when they are punishable with the same amount of punishment under the same section of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) or of any special or local laws :

Provided that, for the purposes of this section, an offence punishable under Section 379 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) shall be deemed to be an offence of the same kind as an offence punishable under Section 380 of the said Code, and that an offence punishable under any section of the said Code, or of any special or local law, shall be deemed to be an offence of the same kind as an attempt to commit such offence, when such attempt is an offence.

220. Trial for more than one offence. – (1) If, in one series of acts so connected together as to form the same transaction, more offences than one are committed by the same person, he may be charged with, and tried at one trial for, every such offence.

(2) When a person charged with one or more offences of criminal breach of trust or dishonest misappropriation of property as provided in sub-section (2) of Section 212 or in sub-section (1) of Section 219, is accused of committing, for the purpose of facilitating or concealing the commission of that offence or those offences, one or more offences of falsification of accounts, he may be charged with, and tried at one trial for, every such offence.

(3) If the facts alleged constitute an offence falling within two or more separate definitions of any law in force for the time being by which offences are defined or punished, the person accused of them may be charged with, and tried at one trial for, each of such offences.

(4) If several acts, of which one or more than one would by itself or themselves constitute an offence, constitute when combined a different offence, the person accused of them may be charged with, and tried at one trial for the offence constituted by such acts when combined, and for any offence constituted by any one, or more, of such acts.

(5) Nothing contained in this section shall affect Section 71 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860).

Illustrations to Sub-section (1)

(a) A rescues B, a person in lawful custody, and in so doing cause grievous hurt to C, a constable in whose custody B was. A may be charged with and convicted of, offences under Sections 225 and 333 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860).

(b) A commits house-breaking by day with intent to commit adultery, and commits, in the house so entered, adultery with B’s wife. A may be separately charged with and convicted of, offences under Sections 454 and 497 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860).

(c) A entices B, the wife of C, away from C, with intent to commit adultery with B, and then commits adultery with her. A may be separately charged with, and convicted of, offences under Sections 498 and 497 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860).

(d) A has in his possession several seals, knowing them to be counterfeit and intending to use them for the purposes of committing several forgeries punishable under Section 466 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860). A may be separately charged with and convicted of, the possession of each seal under Section 473 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860).

(e) With intent to cause injury to B, A institutes a criminal proceeding against him, knowing that there is no just or lawful ground for such proceeding and also falsely accuses B of having committed an offence, knowing that there is no just or lawful ground for such charge. A may be separately charged with, and convicted of, two offences under Section 211 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860).

(f) A, with intent to cause injury to B, falsely accuses him of having committed an offence, knowing that there is no just or lawful ground for such charge. On the trial, A gives false evidence against B, intending thereby to cause B to be convicted of a capital offence. A may be separately charged with, and convicted of, offences under Sections 211 and 194 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860).

(g) A, with six others, commits the offences of rioting, grievous hurt and assaulting a public servant endeavouring in the discharge of his duty as such to suppress the riot. A may be separately charged with, and convicted of, offences under Sections 147, 325 and 152 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860).

(h) A threatens B, C and D at the same time with injury to their persons with intent to cause alarm to them. A may be separately charged with, and convicted of, each of the three offences under Section 506 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860).

The separate charges referred to in Illustrations (a) to (h), respectively may be tried at the same time.

Illustrations To Sub-section (3)

(i) A wrongfully strikes B with a cane. A may be separately charged with and convicted of, offences under Sections 352 and 323 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860).

(j) Several stolen sacks of corn are made over to A and B, who knew that they are stolen property for the purpose of concealing them. A and B thereupon voluntarily assist each other to conceal the sack at the bottom of a grain-pit. A and B may be separately charged with, and convicted of, offences under Sections 411 and 414 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860).

(k) A exposes her child with the knowledge that she is thereby likely to cause its death. The child dies in consequence of such exposure. A may be separately charged with, and convicted of, offences under Sections 317 and 304 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860).

(l) A dishonestly uses a forged document as genuine evidence, in order to convict B, a public servant, of an offence under Section 167 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860). A may be separately charged with, and convicted of, offences under Sections 471 (read with Section 466) and 196 of that Code.

Illustration To Sub-section (4)

(m) A commits robbery on B, and in doing so voluntarily causes hurt to him. A may be separately charged with, and convicted of, offences under Sections 323, 392 and 394 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860).

221. Where it is doubtful what offence has been committed. – (1) If a single act or series of acts is of such a nature that it is doubtful which of several offences the facts which can be proved will constitute, the accused may be charged with having committed all or any of such offences, and any number of such charges may be tried at once; or he may be charged in the alternative with having committed some one of the said offences.

(2) If in such a case the accused is charged with one offence, and it appears in evidence that he committed a different offence for which he might have been charged under the provisions of sub-section (1), he may be convicted of the offence which he is shown to have committed, although he was not charged with it.

Illustrations

(a) A is accused of an act which may amount to theft, or receiving stolen property, or criminal breach of trust or cheating. He may be charged with theft, receiving stolen property, criminal breach of trust and cheating, or he may be charged with having committed theft, or receiving stolen property or criminal breach of trust or cheating.

(b) In the case mentioned, A is only charged with theft. It appears that he committed the offence of criminal breach of trust, or that of receiving stolen goods. He may be convicted of criminal breach of trust or of receiving stolen goods (as the case may be), though he was not charged with such offence.

(c) A states on oath before the Magistrate that he saw B hit C with a club. Before the Sessions Court, A states on oath that B never hit C. A may be charged in the alternative and convicted of intentionally giving false evidence, although it cannot be proved which of these contradictory statements was false.

222. When offence proved included in offence charged. – (1) When a person is charged with an offence consisting of several particulars, a combination of some only of which constitutes a complete minor offence, and such combination is proved, but the remaining particulars are not proved, he may be convicted of the minor offence, though he was not charged with it.

(2) When a person is charged with an offence and facts are proved which reduce it to minor offence, he may be convicted of the minor offence, although he is not charged with it.

(3) When a person is charged with an offence, he may be convicted of an attempt to commit such offence although the attempt is not separately charged.

(4) Nothing in this section shall be deemed to authorise a conviction of any minor offence where the conditions requisite for the initiation of proceedings in respect of that minor offence have not been satisfied.

Illustrations

(a) A is charged under Section 407 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), with criminal breach of trust in respect of property entrusted to him as a carrier. It appears, that he did commit criminal breach of trust under Section 406 of that Code in respect of the property, but that it was not entrusted to him as a carrier. He may be convicted of criminal breach of trust under the said Section 406.

(b) A is charged, under Section 325 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), with causing grievous hurt. He proves that he acted on grave and sudden provocation. He may be convicted under Section 335 of that Code.

223. What persons may be charged jointly. – The following persons may be charged and tried together, namely –

(a) persons accused of the same offence committed in the course of the same transaction;

(b) persons accused of an offence and persons accused of abetment of, or attempt to commit, such offence;

(c) persons accused of more than one offence of the same kind, within the meaning of Section 219 committed by them jointly within the period of twelve months;

(d) persons accused of different offences committed in the course of the same transaction;

(e) persons accused of an offence which includes theft, extortion, cheating, criminal misappropriation, and persons accused of receiving or retaining, or assisting in the disposal or concealment of, property possession of which is alleged to have been transferred by any such offence committed by the first-named persons, or of abetment of or attempting to commit any such last-named offence;

(f) persons accused of offences under Sections 411 and 414 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), or either of those sections in respect of stolen property the possession of which has been transferred by one offence;

(g) persons accused of any offence under Chapter XII of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), relating to counterfeit coin and persons accused of any other offence under the said Chapter relating to the same coin, or of abetment of or attempting to commit any such offence; and the provisions contained in the former part of this Chapter shall, so far as may be, apply to all such charges :

Provided that where a number of persons are charged with separate offences and such persons do not fall within any of the categories specified in this section, the [Magistrate or Court of Session] may, if such persons by an application in writing, so desire, and [if he or it is satisfied] that such persons would not be prejudicially affected thereby, and it is expedient so to do, try all such persons together.

224. Withdrawal of remaining charges on conviction on one of several charges. – When a charge containing more heads than one is framed against the same person, and when a conviction has been had for one or more of them, the complainant, or the officer conducting the prosecution, may, with the consent of the Court, withdraw the remaining charge or charges, or the Court of its own accord may stay the inquiry into, or trial of, such charge or charges and such withdrawal shall have the effect of an acquittal on such charge or charges, unless the conviction be set aside, in which case the said Court (subject to the order of the Court setting aside the conviction) may proceed with the inquiry into, or trial of, the charge or charges so withdrawn.

CHAPTER XVIII

Trial Before A Court Of Session

225. Trial to be conducted by Public Prosecutor. – In every trial before a Court of Session, the prosecution shall be conducted by a Public Prosecutor.

226. Opening case for prosecution. – When the accused appears or is brought before the Court in pursuance of a commitment of the case under Section 209, the prosecutor shall open his case by describing the charge brought against the accused and stating by what evidence he proposes to prove the guilt of the accused.

227. Discharge. – If, upon consideration of the record of the case and the documents submitted therewith, and after hearing the submissions of the accused and the prosecution in this behalf, the Judge considers that there is not sufficient ground for proceeding against the accused, he shall discharge the accused and record his reasons for so doing.

228. Framing of charge. – (1) If, after such consideration and hearing as aforesaid, the Judge is of opinion that there is ground for presuming that the accused has committed an offence which –

(a) is not exclusively triable by the Court of Session, he may, frame a charge against the accused and, by order, transfer the case for trial to the Chief Judicial Magistrate, [or any other Judicial Magistrate of the first class and direct the accused to appear before the Chief Judicial Magistrate, or, as the case may be, the Judicial Magistrate of the first class, on such date as he deems fit, and thereupon such Magistrate] shall try the offence in accordance with the procedure for the trial of warrant-cases instituted on a police report;

(b) is exclusively triable by the Court, he shall frame in writing a charge against the accused.

(2) Where the Judge frames any charge under clause (b) of sub-section (1), the charge shall be read and explained to accused, and the accused shall be asked whether he pleads guilty of the offence charged or claims to be tried.

229. Conviction on plea of guilty. – If the accused pleads guilty, the Judge shall record the plea and may, in his discretion, convict him thereon.

230. Date for prosecution evidence. – If the accused refuses to plead, or does not plead, or claims to be tried or is not convicted under Section 229, the Judge shall fix a date for the examination of witnesses, and may, on the application of the prosecution, issue any process for compelling the attendance of any witness or the production of any document or other thing.

231. Evidence for prosecution. – (1) On the date so fixed, the Judge shall proceed to take all such evidence as may be produced in support of the prosecution.

(2) The Judge may, in his discretion, permit the cross-examination of any witness to be deferred until any other witness or witnesses have been examined or recall any witness for further cross-examination.

232. Acquittal. – If, after taking the evidence for the prosecution, examining the accused and hearing the prosecution and the defence on the point, the Judge considers that there is no evidence that the accused committed the offence, the Judge shall record an order of acquittal.

233. Entering upon defence. – (1) Where the accused is not acquitted under Section 232, he shall be called upon to enter on his defence and adduce any evidence he may have in support thereof.

(2) If the accused puts in any written statement, the Judge shall file it with the record.

(3) If the accused applies for the issue of any process for compelling the attendance of any witness or the production of any document or thing, the Judge shall issue such process unless he considers, for reasons to be recorded, that such application should be refused on the ground that it is made for the purpose of vexation or delay or for defeating the ends of justice.

234. Arguments. – When the examination of the witnesses (if any) for the defence is complete, the prosecutor shall sum up his case and the accused or his pleader shall be entitled to reply :

Provided that where any point of law is raised by the accused or his pleader, the prosecution may, with the permission of the Judge, make his submissions with regard to such point of law.

235. Judgment of acquittal or conviction. – (1) After hearing arguments and points of law (if any), the Judge shall give a judgment in the case.

(2) If the accused is convicted, the Judge shall, unless he proceeds in accordance with the provisions of Section 360, hear the accused on the question of sentence, and then pass sentence on him according to law.

236. Previous conviction. – In a case where a previous conviction is charged under the provisions of sub-section (7) of Section 211, and the accused does not admit that he has been previously convicted as alleged in the charge, the Judge may, after he has convicted the said accused under Section 229 or Section 235, take evidence in respect of the alleged previous conviction, and shall record a finding thereon :

Provided that no such charge shall be read out by the Judge nor shall the accused be asked to plead thereto nor shall the previous conviction be referred to by the prosecution or in any evidence adduced by it, unless and until the accused has been convicted under Section 229 or Section 235.

237. Procedure in cases instituted under Section 199(2). – (1) A Court of Session taking cognizance of an offence under sub-section (2) of Section 199 shall try the case in accordance with the procedure for the trial of warrant-cases instituted otherwise than on a police report before a Court of Magistrate :

Provided that the person against whom the offence is alleged to have been committed shall, unless the Court of Session, for reasons to be recorded, otherwise directs, be examined as a witness for the prosecution.

(2) Every trial under this section shall be held in camera if either party thereto so desires or if the Court thinks fit so to do.

(3) If, in any such case, the Court discharges or acquits all or any of the accused and is of opinion that there was no reasonable cause for making the accusation against them or any of them, it may, by its order of discharge or acquittal, direct the person against whom the offence was alleged to have been committed (other than the President, Vice-President or Governor of a State or the Administrator of a Union territory) to show cause why he should not pay compensation to such accused or to each or any of such accused, when there are more than one.

(4) The Court shall record and consider any cause which may be shown by the person so directed, and if it is satisfied that there was no reasonable cause for making the accusation, it may, for reasons to be recorded, make an order that compensation to such amount not exceeding one thousand rupees, as it may determine, be paid by such person to the accused or to each or any of them.

(5) Compensation awarded under sub-section (4) shall be recovered as if it were a fine imposed by a Magistrate.

(6) No person who has been directed to pay compensation under sub-section (4) shall, by reason of such order, be exempted from any civil or criminal liability in respect of the complaint made under this section :

Provided that any amount paid to an accused person under this section shall be taken into account in awarding compensation to such person in any subsequent civil suit relating to the same matter.

(7) The person who has been ordered under sub-section (4) to pay compensation, may appeal from the order, in so far as it relates to the payment of compensation, to the High Court.

(8) When an order for payment of compensation to an accused person is made, the compensation shall not be paid to him before the period allowed for the presentation of the appeal has elapsed, or, if an appeal is presented, before the appeal has been decided.

CHAPTER XIX

Trial Of Warrant-Cases By Magistrates

A. Cases instituted on a police report

238. Compliance with Section 207. – When, in any warrant-case instituted on a police report, the accused appears or is brought before a Magistrate at the commencement of the trial, the Magistrate shall satisfy himself that he has complied with the provisions of Section 207.

239. When accused shall be discharged. – If, upon considering the police report and the documents sent with it under Section 173 and making such examination, if any, of the accused as the Magistrate thinks necessary and after giving the prosecution and the accused an opportunity of being heard, the Magistrate considers the charge against the accused to be groundless, he shall discharge the accused, and record his reasons for so doing.

240. Framing of charge. – (1) If, upon such consideration, examination, if any, and hearing, the Magistrate is of opinion that there is ground for presuming that the accused has committed an offence triable under this Chapter, which such Magistrate is competent to try and which, in his opinion, could be adequately punished by him, he shall frame in writing a charge against the accused.

(2) The charge shall then be read and explained to the accused, and he shall be asked whether he pleads guilty of the offence charged or claims to be tried.

241. Conviction on plea of guilty. – If the accused pleads guilty, the Magistrate shall record the plea, and may, in his discretion, convict him thereon.

242. Evidence for prosecution. – (1) If the accused refuses to plead, or does not plead, or claims to be tried or the Magistrate does not convict the accused under Section 241, the Magistrate shall fix a date for the examination of witnesses.

[Provided that the Magistrate shall supply in advance to the accused, the statement of witnesses recorded during investigation by the police.]

(2) The Magistrate may, on the application of the prosecution, issue a summons to any of its witnesses directing him to attend or to produce any document or other thing.

(3) On the date so fixed, the Magistrate shall proceed to take all such evidence as may be produced in support of the prosecution :

Provided that the Magistrate may permit the cross-examination of any witness to be deferred until any other witness or witnesses have been examined or recall any witness for further cross-examination.

243. Evidence for defence. – (1) The accused shall then be called upon to enter upon his defence and produce his evidence; and if the accused puts in any written statement, the Magistrate shall file it with the record.

(2) If the accused, after he has entered upon his defence, applies to the Magistrate to issue any process for compelling the attendance of any witness for the purpose of examination or cross-examination, or the production of any document or other thing, the Magistrate shall issue such process unless he considers that such application should be refused on the ground that it is made for the purpose of vexation or delay or for defeating the ends of justice and such ground shall be recorded by him in writing:

Provided that, when the accused has cross-examined or had the opportunity of cross-examining any witness before entering on his defence, the attendance of such witness shall not be compelled under this section, unless the Magistrate is satisfied that it is necessary for the ends of justice.

(3) The Magistrate may, before summoning any witness on an application under sub-section (2), require that the reasonable expenses incurred by the witness in attending for the purposes of the trial be deposited in Court.

B. Cases instituted otherwise than on police report

244. Evidence for prosecution. – (1) When, in any warrant-case instituted otherwise than on a police report, the accused appears or is brought before a Magistrate, the Magistrate shall proceed to hear the prosecution and take all such evidence as may be produced in support of the prosecution.

(2) The Magistrate may, on the application of the prosecution, issue a summons to any of its witnesses directing him to attend or to produce any document or other thing.

245. When accused shall be discharged. – (1) If, upon taking all the evidence referred to in Section 244, the Magistrate considers, for reasons to be recorded, that no case against the accused has been made out which, if unrebutted, would warrant his conviction, the Magistrate shall discharge him.

(2) Nothing in this section shall be deemed to prevent a Magistrate from discharging the accused at any previous stage of the case if, for reasons to be recorded by such Magistrate, he considers the charge to be groundless.

246. Procedure where accused is not discharged. – (1) If, when such evidence has been taken, or at any previous stage of the case, the Magistrate is of opinion that there is ground for presuming that the accused has committed an offence triable under this Chapter, which such Magistrate is competent to try and which, in his opinion, could be adequately punished by him, he shall frame in writing a charge against the accused.

(2) The charge shall then be read and explained to the accused, and he shall be asked whether he pleads guilty or has any defence to make.

(3) If the accused pleads guilty, the Magistrate shall record the plea, and may, in his discretion, convict him thereon.

(4) If the accused refuses to plead, or does not plead or claims to be tried or if the accused is not convicted under sub-section (3), he shall be required to state, at the commencement of the next hearing of the case, or, if the Magistrate for reasons to be recorded in writing so thinks fit, forthwith, whether he wishes to cross-examine any, and, if so, which, of the witnesses for the prosecution whose evidence has been taken.

(5) If he says he does so wish, the witnesses named by him shall be recalled and, after cross-examination and re-examination (if any), they shall be discharged.

(6) The evidence of any remaining witnesses for the prosecution shall next be taken, and after cross-examination and re-examination (if any), they shall also be discharged.

247. Evidence for defence. – The accused shall then be called upon to enter upon his defence and produce his evidence; and the provisions of Section 243 shall apply to the case.

C – Conclusion of trial

248. Acquittal or conviction. – (1) If, in any case under this Chapter in which a charge has been framed, the Magistrate finds the accused not guilty, he shall record an order of acquittal.

(2) Where, in any case under this Chapter, the Magistrate finds the accused guilty, but does not proceed in accordance with the provisions of Section 325 or Section 360, he shall, after hearing the accused on the question of sentence, pass sentence upon him according to law.

(3) Where, in any case under this Chapter, a previous conviction is charged under the provisions of sub-section (7) of Section 211 and the accused does not admit that he has been previously convicted as alleged in the charge, the Magistrate may, after he has convicted the said accused, take evidence in respect of the alleged previous conviction, and shall record a finding thereon :

Provided that no such charge shall be read out by the Magistrate nor shall the accused be asked to plead thereto nor shall the previous conviction be referred to by the prosecution or in any evidence adduced by it, unless and until the accused has been convicted under sub-section (2).

249. Absence of complainant. – When the proceedings have been instituted upon complaint, and on any day fixed for the hearing of the case, the complainant is absent, and the offence may be lawfully compounded or is not a cognisable offence, the Magistrate may, in his discretion, notwithstanding anything herein above contained, at any time before the charge has been framed, discharge the accused.

250. Compensation for accusation without reasonable cause. – (1) If, in any case instituted upon complaint or upon information given to a police officer or to a Magistrate, one or more persons is or are accused before a Magistrate of any offence triable by a Magistrate, and the Magistrate by whom the case is heard discharges or acquits all or any of the accused, and is of opinion that there was no reasonable ground for making the accusation against them or any of them, the Magistrate may, by his order of discharge or acquittal, if the person upon whose complaint or information the accusation was made is present, call upon him forthwith, to show cause why he should not pay compensation to such accused or to each or any of such accused when there are more than one; or, if such person is not present, direct the issue of a summons to him to appear and show cause as aforesaid.

(2) The Magistrate shall record and consider any cause which such complainant or informant may show, and if he is satisfied that there was no reasonable ground for making the accusation, may, for reasons to be recorded, make an order that compensation to such amount, not exceeding the amount of fine he is empowered to impose, as he may determine, be paid by such complainant or informant to the accused or to each or any of them.

(3) The Magistrate may, by the order directing payment of the compensation under sub-section (2), further order that, in default of payment, the person ordered to pay such compensation shall undergo simple imprisonment for a period not exceeding thirty days.

(4) When any person is imprisoned under sub-section (3), the provisions of Sections 68 and 69 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) shall, so far as may be, apply.

(5) No person who has been directed to pay compensation under this section shall, by reason of such order, be exempted from any civil or criminal liability in respect of the complaint made or information given by him :

Provided that any amount paid to an accused person under this section shall be taken into account in awarding compensation to such person in any subsequent civil suit relating to the same matter.

(6) A complainant or informant who has been ordered under sub-section (2) by a Magistrate of the second class to pay compensation exceeding one hundred rupees, may appeal from the order, as if such complainant or informant had been convicted on a trial held by such Magistrate.

(7) When an order for payment of compensation to an accused person is made in a case which is subject to appeal under sub-section (6), the compensation shall not be paid to him before the period allowed for the presentation of the appeal has elapsed, or, if an appeal is presented, before the appeal has been decided; and where such order is made in a case which is not so subject to appeal the compensation shall not be paid before the expiration of one month from the date of the order.

(8) The provisions of this section apply to summons-cases as well as to warrant-cases.

CHAPTER XX

Trial Of Summons-Cases By Magistrates

251. Substance of accusation to be stated. – When in a summons-case the accused appears or is brought before the Magistrate, the particulars of the offence of which he is accused shall be stated to him, and he shall be asked whether he pleads guilty or has any defence to make, but it shall not be necessary to frame a formal charge.

252. Conviction on plea of guilty. – If the accused pleads guilty, the Magistrate shall record the plea as nearly as possible in the words used by the accused and may, in his discretion, convict him thereon.

253. Conviction on plea of guilty in absence of accused in petty cases. – (1) Where a summons has been issued under Section 206 and the accused desires to plead guilty to the charge without appearing before the Magistrate, he shall transmit to the Magistrate, by post or by messenger, a letter containing his plea and also the amount of fine specified in the summons.

(2) The Magistrate may, in his discretion, convict the accused in his absence, on his plea of guilty and sentence him to pay the fine specified in the summons, and the amount transmitted by the accused shall be adjusted towards that fine, or where a pleader authorised by the accused in this behalf pleads guilty on behalf of the accused, the Magistrate shall record the plea as nearly as possible in the words used by the pleader and may, in his discretion, convict the accused on such plea and sentence him as aforesaid.

254. Procedure when not convicted. – (1) If the Magistrate does not convict the accused under Section 252 or Section 253, the Magistrate shall proceed to hear the prosecution and take all such evidence as may be produced in support of the prosecution, and also to hear the accused and take all such evidence as he produces in his defence.

(2) The Magistrate may, if he thinks fit, on the application of the prosecution or the accused, issue a summons to any witness directing him to attend or to produce any document or other thing.

(3) The Magistrate may, before summoning any witness on such application, require that the reasonable expenses of the witness incurred in attending for the purposes of the trial be deposited in Court.

255. Acquittal or conviction. – (1) If the Magistrate, upon taking the evidence referred to in Section 254 and such further evidence, if any, as he may, of his own motion, cause to be produced, finds the accused not guilty, he shall record an order of acquittal.

(2) Where the Magistrate does not proceed in accordance with the provisions of Section 325 or Section 360, he shall, if he finds the accused guilty, pass sentence upon him according to law.

(3) A Magistrate may, under Section 252 or Section 255, convict the accused of any offence triable under this Chapter, which from the facts admitted or proved he appears to have committed, whatever may be the nature of the complaint or summons, if the Magistrate is satisfied that the accused would not be prejudiced thereby.

256. Non-appearance or death of complainant. – (1) If the summons has been issued on complaint, and on the day appointed for the appearance of the accused, or any day subsequent thereto to which the hearing may be adjourned, the complainant does not appear, the Magistrate shall notwithstanding anything hereinbefore contained, acquit the accused, unless for some reason he thinks it proper to adjourn the hearing of the case to some other day :

Provided that where the complainant is represented by a pleader or by the officer conducting the prosecution or where the Magistrate is of opinion that the personal attendance of the complainant is not necessary, the Magistrate may dispense with his attendance and proceed with the case.

(2) The provisions of sub-section (1) shall, so far as may be, apply also to cases where the non-appearance of the complainant is due to his death.

257. Withdrawal of complaint. – If a complainant, at any time before a final order is passed in any case under this Chapter, satisfies the Magistrate that there are sufficient grounds for permitting him to withdraw his complaint against the accused, or if there be more than one accused, against all or any of them, the Magistrate may permit him to withdraw the same, and shall thereupon acquit the accused against whom the complaint is so withdrawn.

258. Power to stop proceedings in certain cases. – In any summons-case instituted otherwise than upon complaint, a Magistrate of the first class or, with the previous sanction of the Chief Judicial Magistrate, any other Judicial Magistrate, may, for reasons to be recorded by him, stop the proceedings at any stage without pronouncing any judgment and where such stoppage of proceedings is made after the evidence of the principal witnesses has been recorded, pronounce a judgment of acquittal, and in any other case, release the accused, and such release shall have the effect of discharge.

259. Power of Court to convert summons-cases into warrant-cases. – When in the course of the trial of a summons-case relating to an offence punishable with imprisonment for a term exceeding six months, it appears to the Magistrate that in the interests of justice, the offence should be tried in accordance with the procedure for the trial of warrant-cases, such Magistrate may proceed to rehear the case in the manner provided by this Code for the trial of warrant-cases and may recall any witness who may have been examined.

CHAPTER XXI

Summary Trials

260. Power to try summarily. – (1) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Code –

(a) any Chief Judicial Magistrate;

(b) any Metropolitan Magistrate;

(c) any Magistrate of the first class specially empowered in this behalf by the High Court;

may, if he thinks fit, try in a summary way all or any of the following offences –

(i) offences not punishable with death, imprisonment for life or imprisonment for a term exceeding two years;

(ii) theft, under Section 379, Section 380 or Section 381 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), where the value of the property stolen does not exceed [two thousand rupees];

(iii) receiving or retaining stolen property, under Section 411 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), where the value of the property does not exceed [two thousand rupees];

(iv) assisting in the concealment or disposal of stolen property, under Section 414 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), where the value of such property does not exceed [two hundred rupees];

(v) offences under Sections 454 and 456 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860);

(vi) insult with intent to provoke a breach of the peace, under Section 504, and [[criminal intimidation punishable with imprisonment for a term with may extend to two years, or with fine, or both] under Section 506 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860);

(vii) abetment of any of the foregoing offences;

(viii) an attempt to commit any of the foregoing offences, when such attempt is an offence;

(ix) any offence constituted by an act in respect of which a complaint may be made under Section 20 of the Cattle Trespass Act, 1871 (1 of 1871).

(2) When, in the course of a summary trial it appears to the Magistrate, that the nature of the case is such that it is undesirable to try it summarily, the Magistrate shall recall any witnesses who may have been examined and proceed to re-hear the case in the manner provided by this Code.

261. Summary trial by Magistrate of the second class. – The High Court may confer on any Magistrate invested with the powers of a Magistrate of the second class power to try summarily any offence which is punishable only with fine or with imprisonment for a term not exceeding six months with or without fine, and any abetment of or attempt to commit any such offence.

262. Procedure for summary trials. – (1) In trials under this Chapter, the procedure specified in this Code for the trial of summons-case shall be followed except as hereinafter mentioned.

(2) No sentence of imprisonment for a term exceeding three months shall be passed in the case of any conviction under this Chapter.

263. Record in summary trials. – In every case tried summarily, the Magistrate shall enter, in such form as the State Government may direct, the following particulars, namely :-

(a) the serial number of the case;

(b) the date of the commission of the offence;

(c) the date of the report or complaint;

(d) the name of the complainant (if any);

(e) the name, parentage and residence of the accused;

(f) the offence complained of and the offence (if any) proved, and in cases coming under clause (ii), clause (iii) or clause (iv) of sub-section (1) of Section 260, the value of the property in respect of which the offence has been committed;

(g) the plea of the accused and his examination (if any);

(h) the finding;

(i) the sentence or other final order;

(j) the date on which proceedings terminated.

264. Judgment in cases tried summarily. – In every case tried summarily in which the accused does not plead guilty, the Magistrate shall record the substance of the evidence and a judgment containing a brief statement of the reasons for the finding.

265. Language of record and judgment. – (1) Every such record and judgment shall be written in the language of the Court.

(2) The High Court may authorise any Magistrate empowered to try offences summarily to prepare the aforesaid record or judgment or both by means of an officer appointed in this behalf by the Chief Judicial Magistrate, and the record or judgment so prepared shall be signed by such Magistrate.

CHAPTER XXI-A

Plea Bargaining

265A. Application of the Chapter -(1) This Chapter shall apply in respect of an accused against whom

(a) the report has been forwarded by the officer in charge of the police station under section 173 alleging therein that an offence appears to have been committed by him other than an offence for which the punishment of death or of imprisonment for life or of imprisonment for a term exceeding seven years has been provided under the law for the time being in force; or

(b) a Magistrate has taken cognizance of an offence on complaint, other than an offence for which the punishment of death or of imprisonment for life or of imprisonment for a term exceeding seven years, has been provided under the law for the time being in force, and after examining complainant and witnesses under section 200, issued the process under section 204, but does not apply where such offence affects the socio-economic condition of the country or has been committed against a woman, or a child below the age of fourteen years.

(2) For the purposes of sub-section (1), the Central Government shall, by notification, determine the offences under the law for the time being in force which shall be the offences affecting the socio-economic condition of the country.

265B. Application for plea bargaining. – (1) A person accused of . an offence may file application for plea bargaining in the Court in which such offence is pending for trial.

(2) The application under sub-section (1) shall contain a brief description of the case relating to which the application is filed including the offence to which the case relates and shall be accompanied by an affidavit sworn by the accused stating therein that he has voluntarily preferred, after understanding the nature and extent of punishment provided under the law for the offence, the plea bargaining in his case and that he has not previously been convicted by a Court in a case in which he had been charged with the same offence.

(3) After receiving the application under sub-section (1), the Court shall issue notice to the Public Prosecutor or the complainant of the case, as the case may be, and to the accused to appear on the date fixed for the case.

(4) When the Public Prosecutor or the complainant of the case, as the case may be, and the accused appear on the date fixed under sub-section (3), the Court shall examine the accused in camera, where the other party in the case shall not be present, to satisfy itself that the accused has filed the application voluntarily and where;

(a) the Court is satisfied that the application has been filed by the accused, voluntarily, it shall provide time to the Public Prosecutor or the complainant of the case, as the case may be, and the accused to work out a mutually satisfactory disposition of the case which may include giving to the victim by the accused the compensation and other expenses during the case and thereafter fix the date for further hearing of the case;

(b) the Court finds that the application has been filed involuntarily by the accused or he has previously been convicted by a Court in a case in which he had been charged with the same offence, it shall proceed further in accordance with the provisions of this Code from the stage such application has been filed under sub-section (1).

265C. Guidelines for mutually satisfactory disposition. – In working out a mutually satisfactory disposition under clause (a) of sub-Section (4) of section 265-B, the Court shall follow the following procedure, namely:

(a) in a case instituted on a police report, the Court shall issue notice to the Public Prosecutor, the police officer who has investigated the case, the accused and the victim of the case to participate in the meeting to work out a satisfactory disposition of the case:

Provided that throughout such process of working out a satisfactory disposition of the case, it shall be the duty of the Court to ensure that the entire process is completed voluntarily by the parties participating in the meeting:

Provided further that the accused, if he so desires, may participate in such meeting with his pleader, if any, engaged in the case.

(b) in a case instituted otherwise than on police report, the Court shall issue notice to the accused and the victim of the case to participate in a meeting to work out a satisfactory disposition of the case:

Provided that it shall be the duty of the Court to ensure, throughout such process of working out a satisfactory disposition of the case, that it is completed voluntarily by the parties participating in the meeting:

Provided further that if the victim of the case or the accused, as the case may be, so desires, he may participate in such meeting with his pleader engaged in the case.

265D. Report of the mutually satisfactory disposition to be submitted before the Court. – Where in a meeting under section 265-C, a satisfactory disposition of the case has been worked out, the Court shall prepare a report of such disposition which shall be signed by the presiding officer of the Court and all other persons who participated in the meeting and if no such disposition has been worked out, the Court shall record such observation and proceed further in accordance with the provisions of this Code from the stage the application under sub-section (1) of Section 265-B has been filed in such case.

265E. Disposal of the case. – Where a satisfactory disposition of the case has been worked out under section 265-D, the Court shall dispose of the case in the following manner, namely:

(a) the Court shall award the compensation to the victim in accordance with the disposition under Section 265-D and hear the parties on the quantum of the punishment, releasing of the accused on probation of good conduct or after admonition under Section 360 or for dealing with the accused under the provisions of the Probation of Offenders Act, 1958 (20 of 1958) or any other law for the time being in force and follow the procedure specified in the succeeding clauses for imposing the punishment on the accused;

(b) after hearing the parties under clause (a), if the Court is of the view that Section 360 or the provisions of the Probation of Offenders Act, 1958 (20 of 1958) or any other law for the time being in force are attracted in the case of the accused, it may release the accused on probation or provide the benefit of any such law, as the case may be;

(c) after hearing the parties under clause (b), if the Court finds that minimum punishment has been provided under the law for the offence committed by the accused, it may sentence the accused to half of such minimum punishment;

(d) in case after hearing the parties under clause (b), the Court finds that the offence committed by the accused is not covered under clause (b) or clause (c), then, it may sentence the accused to one-fourth of the punishment provided or extendable, as the case may be, for such offence.

265F. Judgment of the Court. – The Court shall deliver its judgment in terms of Section 265-E in the open Court and the same shall be signed by the presiding officer of the Court.

265G. Finality of the judgment. – The judgment delivered by the Court under Section 265-G shall be final and no appeal (except the special leave petition under Article 136 and writ petition under Articles 226 and 227 of the Constitution) shall lie in any Court against such judgment.

265H. Power of the Court in plea bargaining. – A Court shall have, for the purposes of discharging its functions under this Chapter, all the powers vested in respect of bail, trial of offences and other matters relating to the disposal of a case in such Court under this Code.

265I. Period of detention undergone by the accused to be set off against the sentence of imprisonment. – The provisions of Section 428 shall apply, for setting off the period of detention undergone by the accused against the sentence of imprisonment imposed under this Chapter, in the same manner as they apply in respect of the imprisonment under other provisions of this Code.

265J. Savings. – The provisions of this Chapter shall have effect notwithstanding anything inconsistent therewith contained in any other provisions of this Code and nothing in such other provisions shall be construed to constrain the meaning of any provision of this Chapter.

Explanation. – For the purposes of this Chapter, the ‘expression “Public Prosecutor” has the meaning assigned to it under clause (u) of Section 2 and includes an Assistant Public Prosecutor appointed under Section 25.

265K. Statements of accused not to be used. – Notwithstanding anything contained in any law for the time being in force, the statements or facts stated by an accused in an application for plea bargaining file under Section 265-B shall not be used for any other purpose except for the purpose of this Chapter.

265L. Non-application of the Chapter. – Nothing in this Chapter shall apply to any Juvenile or Child as defined in sub-clause (k) of Section 2 of the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2000 (56 of 2000).]

CHAPTER XXII

Attendance Of Persons Confined Or Detained In Prisons

266. Definitions. – In this Chapter, –

(a) “detained” includes detained under any law providing for preventive detention;

(b) “prison” includes, –

(i) any place which has been declared by the State Government, by general or special order, to be a subsidiary jail;

(ii) any Reformatory, Borstal institution or other institution of a like nature.

267. Power to require attendance of prisoners. – (1) Whenever, in the course of an inquiry, trial or other proceeding under this Code, it appears to a Criminal Court-

(a) that a person confined or detained in a prison should be brought before the Court for answering to a charge of an offence, or for the purpose of any proceedings against him, or

(b) that it is necessary for the ends of justice to examine such person as a witness, the Court may make an order requiring the officer in charge of the prison to produce such person before the Court for answering to the charge or for the purpose of such proceeding or, as the case may be, for giving evidence.

(2) Where an order under sub-Section (1) is made by a Magistrate of the second class, it shall not be forwarded to, or acted upon by, the officer-in-charge of the prison unless it is countersigned by the Chief Judicial Magistrate to whom such Magistrate is subordinate.

(3) Every order submitted for countersigning under sub-Section (2) shall be accompanied by a statement of the facts which, in the opinion of the Magistrate, render the order necessary, and the Chief Judicial Magistrate to whom it is submitted may, after considering such statement, decline to countersign the order.

268. Power of State Government to exclude certain persons from operation of Section 267. – (1) The State Government may, at any time, having regard to the matters specified in sub-Section (2), by general or special order, direct that any person or class of persons shall not be removed from the prison in which he or they may be confined or detained, and thereupon so long as the order remains in force, no order made under Section 267, whether before or after the order of the State Government, shall have effect in respect of such person or class of persons.

(2) Before making an order under sub-Section (1), the State Government shall have regard to the following matters, namely :-

(a) the nature of the offence for which, or the grounds on which, the person or class of persons has been ordered to be confined or detained in prison;

(b) the likelihood of the disturbance of public order if the person or class of persons is allowed to be removed from the prison;

(c) the public interest, generally.

269. Officer-in-charge of prison to abstain from carrying out order in certain contingencies. – Where the person in respect of whom an order is made under Section 267 –

(a) is by reason of sickness or infirmity unfit to be removed from the prison; or

(b) is under committal for trial or under remand pending trial or pending a preliminary investigation; or

(c) is in custody for a period which would expire before the expiration of the time required for complying with the order and for taking him back to the prison in which he is confined or detained; or

(d) is a person to whom an order made by the State Government under Section 268 applies, the officer-in-charge of the prison shall abstain from carrying out the Court’s order and shall send to the Court a statement of reasons for so abstaining :

Provided that where the attendance of such person is required for giving evidence at a place not more than twenty-five kilometres distance from the prison, the officer-in-charge of the prison shall not so abstain for the reason mentioned in clause (b).

270. Prisoner to be brought to Court in custody. – Subject to the provisions of Section 269, the officer in charge of the prison shall, upon delivery of an order made under sub-Section (1) of Section 267 and duly countersigned, where necessary, under sub-Section (2) thereof, cause the person named in the order to be taken to the Court in which his attendance is required, so as to be present there at the time mentioned in the order, and shall cause him to be kept in custody in or near the Court until he has been examined or until the Court authorises him to be taken back to the prison in which he was confined or detained.

271. Power to issue commission for examination of witness in prison. – The provisions of this Chapter shall be without prejudice to the power of the Court to issue, under Section 284, a commission for the examination, as a witness, of any person confined or detained in a prison; and the provisions of Part B of Chapter XXIII shall apply in relation to the examination on commission of any such person in the prison as they apply in relation to the examination on commission of any other person.

CHAPTER XXIII

Evidence In Inquiries And Trials

A. Mode or taking and recording evidence

272. Language of Courts. – The State Government may determine what shall be, for purposes of this Code, the language of each Court within the State other than the High Court.

273. Evidence to be taken in presence of accused. – Except as otherwise expressly provided, all evidence taken in the course of the trial or other proceeding shall be taken in the presence of the accused, or, when his personal attendance is dispensed with, in the presence of his pleader.

[Provided that where the evidence of a woman below the age of eighteen years who is alleged to have been subjected to rape or any other sexual offence, is to be recorded, the court may take appropriate measures to ensure that such woman is not confronted by the accused while at the same time ensuring the right of cross-examination of the accused.]

Explanation. – In this Section, “accused” includes a person in relation to whom any proceeding under Chapter VIII has been commenced under this Code.

274. Record in summons-case and inquiries. – (1) In all summons-cases tried before a Magistrate, in all inquiries under Sections 145 to 148 (both inclusive), and in all proceedings under Section 446 otherwise than in the course of a trial, the Magistrate shall, as the examination of each witness proceeds, make a memorandum of the substance of his evidence in the language of the Court :

Provided that if the Magistrate is unable to make such memorandum himself, he shall, after recording the reason of his inability, cause such memorandum to be made in writing or from his dictation in open Court.

(2) Such memorandum shall be signed by the Magistrate and shall form part of the record.

275. Record in warrant-cases. – (1) In all warrant-cases tried before a Magistrate, the evidence of each witness shall, as his examination proceeds, be taken down in writing either by the Magistrate himself or by his dictation in open court or, where he is unable to do so owing to a physical or other incapacity, under his direction and superintendence, by an officer of the Court appointed by him in this behalf.

[Provided that evidence of a witness under this sub-Section may also be recorded by audio-video electronic means in the presence of the advocate of the person accused of the offence.]

(2) Where the Magistrate causes the evidence to be taken down, he shall record a certificate that the evidence could not be taken down by himself for the reasons referred to in sub-Section (1).

(3) Such evidence shall ordinarily be taken down in the form of a narrative; but the Magistrate may, in his discretion take down, or cause to be taken down, any part of such evidence in the form of question and answer.

(4) The evidence so taken down shall be signed by the Magistrate and shall form part of the record.

276. Record in trial before Court of Session. – (1) In all trials before a Court of Session, the evidence of each witness shall, as his examination proceeds, be taken down in writing either by the presiding Judge himself or by his dictation in open Court or, under his direction and superintendence, by an officer of the Court appointed by him in this behalf.

[(2) Such evidence shall ordinarily be taken down in the form of a narrative, but the presiding Judge may, in his discretion, take down, or cause to be taken down, any part of such evidence in the form of question and answer.]

(3) The evidence so taken down shall be signed by the presiding Judge and shall form part of the record.

277. Language of record of evidence. – In every case where evidence is taken down under Section 275 or Section 276, –

(a) if the witness gives evidence in the language of the Court, it shall be taken down in that language;

(b) if he gives evidence in any other language, it may, if practicable, be taken down in that language, and if it is not practicable to do so, a true translation of the evidence in the language of the Court shall be prepared as the examination of the witness proceeds, signed by the Magistrate or presiding Judge, and shall form part of the record;

(c) where under clause (b) evidence is taken down in a language other than the language of the Court, a true translation thereof in the language of the Court, shall be prepared as soon as practicable, signed by the Magistrate or presiding Judge, and shall form part of the record :

Provided that when under clause (b) evidence is taken down in English and a translation thereof in the language of the Court is not required by any of the parties, the Court may dispense with such translation.

278. Procedure in regard to such evidence when completed. – (1) As the evidence of each witness taken under Section 275 or Section 276 is completed, it shall be read over to him in the presence of the accused, if in attendance, or of his pleader, if he appears by pleader, and shall, if necessary, be corrected.

(2) If the witness denies the correctness of any part of the evidence when the same is read over to him, the Magistrate or presiding Judge may, instead of correcting the evidence, make a memorandum thereon of the objection made to it by the witness and shall add such remarks as he thinks necessary.

(3) If the record of the evidence is in a language different from that in which it has been given and the witness does not understand that language, the record shall be interpreted to him in the language in which it was given, or in a language which he understands.

279. Interpretation of evidence to accused or his pleader. – (1) Whenever any evidence is given in a language not understood by the accused, and he is present in Court in person, it shall be interpreted to him in open Court in a language understood by him.

(2) If he appears by pleader and the evidence is given in a language other than the language of the Court, and not understood by the pleader, it shall be interpreted to such pleader in that language.

(3) When documents are put for the purpose of formal proof, it shall be in the discretion of the Court to interpret as much thereof as appears necessary.

280. Remarks respecting demeanour of witness. – When a presiding Judge or Magistrate has recorded the evidence of a witness, he shall also record such remarks (if any) as he thinks material respecting the demeanour of such witness whilst under examination.

281. Record of examination of accused. – Whenever the accused is examined by a Metropolitan Magistrate, the Magistrate shall make a memorandum of the substance of the examination of the accused in the language of the Court, and such memorandum shall be signed by the Magistrate and shall form part of the record.

(2) Whenever the accused is examined by any Magistrate other than a Metropolitan Magistrate, or by a Court of Session, the whole of such examination, including every question put to him and every answer given by him, shall be recorded in full by the presiding Judge or Magistrate himself or where he is unable to do so owing to a physical or other incapacity, under his direction and superintendence by an officer of the Court appointed by him in this behalf.

(3) The record shall, if practicable, be in the language in which the accused is examined or, if that is not practicable, in the language of the Court.

(4) The record shall be shown or read to the accused, or, if he does not understand the language in which it is written, shall be interpreted to him in a language which he understands, and he shall be at liberty to explain or add to his answers.

(5) It shall thereafter be signed by the accused, and by the Magistrate or presiding Judge, who shall certify under his own hand that the examination was taken in his presence and hearing and that the record contains a full and true account of the statement made by the accused.

(6) Nothing in this Section shall be deemed to apply to the examination of an accused person in the course of a summary trial.

282. Interpreter to be bound to interpret truthfully. – When the services of an interpreter are required by any Criminal Court for the interpretation of any evidence or statement, he shall be bound to state the true interpretation of such evidence or statement.

283. Record in High Court. – Every High Court may, by general rule, prescribe the manner in which the evidence of witnesses and the examination of the accused shall be taken down in cases coming before it; and such evidence and examination shall be taken down in accordance with such rule.

B. Commissions for the examination of witnesses

284. When attendance of witness may be dispensed with and commission issued. – (1) Whenever, in the course of any inquiry, trial or other proceeding under this Code, it appears to a Court or Magistrate that the examination of a witness is necessary for the ends of justice, and that the attendance of such witness cannot be procured without an amount of delay, expense or inconvenience which, under the circumstances of the case, would be unreasonable, the Court or Magistrate may dispense with such attendance and may issue a commission for the examination of the witness in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter :

Provided that where the examination of the President or the Vice-President of India or the Governor of a State or the Administrator of a Union territory as a witness is necessary for the ends of justice, a commission shall be issued for the examination of such a witness.

(2) The Court may, when issuing a commission for the examination of a witness for the prosecution, direct that such amount as the Court considers reasonable to meet the expenses of the accused, including the pleader’s fees, be paid by the prosecution.

285. Commission to whom to be issued. – (1) If the witness is within the territories to which this Code extends, the commission shall be directed to the Chief Metropolitan Magistrate or Chief Judicial Magistrate, as the case may be, within whose local jurisdiction the witness is to be found.

(2) If the witness is in India, but in a State or an area to which this Code does not extend, the commission shall be directed to such Court or officer as the Central Government may, by notification, specify in this behalf.

(3) If the witness is in a country or place outside India and arrangements have been made by the Central Government with the Government of such country or place for taking the evidence of witnesses in relation to criminal matters, the commission shall be issued in such form, directed to such Court or officer, and sent to such authority for transmission, as the Central Government may, by notification, prescribe in this behalf.

286. Execution of commissions. – Upon receipt of the commission, the Chief Metropolitan Magistrate or Chief Judicial Magistrate, or such Metropolitan or Judicial Magistrate as he may appoint in this behalf, shall summon the witness before him or proceed to the place where the witness is, and shall take down his evidence in the same manner, and may for this purpose exercise the same powers, as in trials of warrant cases under this Code.

287. Parties may examine witnesses. – (1) The parties to any proceeding under this Code in which a commission is issued may respectively forward any interrogatories in writing which the Court or Magistrate directing the commission may think relevant to the issue, and it shall be lawful for the Magistrate, Court or officer to whom the commission is directed, or to whom the duty of executing it is delegated, to examine the witness upon such interrogatories.

(2) Any such party may appear before such Magistrate, Court or officer by pleader, or if not in custody, in person, and may examine, cross-examine, and re-examine (as the case may be) the said witness.

288. Return of commission. – (1) After any commission issued under Section 284 has been duly executed, it shall be returned, together with the deposition of the witness examined thereunder, to the Court or Magistrate issuing the commission; and the commission, the return thereto and the deposition shall be open at all reasonable times to inspection of the parties, and may be, subject to all just exceptions, be read in evidence in the case by either party, and shall form part of the record.

(2) Any deposition so taken, if it satisfies the conditions prescribed by Section 33 of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 (1 of 1872) may also be received in evidence at any subsequent stage of the case before another Court.

289. Adjournment of proceeding. – In every case in which a commission is issued under Section 284, the inquiry, trial or other proceeding may be adjourned for a specified time reasonably sufficient for the execution and return of the commission.

290. Execution of foreign commissions. – (1) The provisions of Section 286 and so much of Section 287 and Section 288 as relate to the execution of a commission and its return shall apply in respect of commissions issued by any of the Courts, Judges or Magistrates hereinafter mentioned as they apply to commissions issued under Section 284.

(2) The Courts, Judges and Magistrates referred to in sub-Section (1) are –

(a) any such Court, Judge or Magistrate exercising jurisdiction within an area in India to which this Code does not extend, as the Central Government may, by notification, specify in this behalf;

(b) any Court, Judge or Magistrate exercising jurisdiction in any such country or place outside India, as the Central Government may, by notification, specify in this behalf, and having authority, under the law in force in that country or place, to issue commissions for the examination of witnesses in relation to criminal matters.

291. Deposition of medical witness. – (1) The deposition of a Civil Surgeon or other medical witness, taken and attested by a Magistrate in the presence of the accused, or taken on commission under this Chapter, may be given in evidence in any inquiry, trial or other proceeding under this Code, although the deponent is not called as a witness.

(2) The Court may, if it thinks fit, and shall, on the application of the prosecution or the accused, summon and examine any such deponent as to the subject-matter of his deposition.

[291A. Identification report of Magistrate – (1) Any document purporting to be a report of identification under the hand of an Executive Magistrate in respect of a person or property may be used as evidence in any inquiry, trial or other proceeding under this Code, although such Magistrate is not called as a witness :

Provided that where such report contains a statement of any suspect or witness to which the provisions of Section 21, Section 32, Section 33, Section 155 or Section 157, as the case may be, of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 (1 of 1872), apply, such statement shall not be used under this sub-Section except in accordance with the provisions of those Sections.

(2) The Court may, if it thinks fit, and shall, on the application of the prosecution or of the accused, summon and examine such Magistrate as to the subject-matter of the said report.]

[292. Evidence of officers of the Mint. – (1) Any document purporting to be a report under the hand of any such [officer of any Mint or of any Note Printing Press or of any Security Printing Press (including the officer of the Controller of Stamps and Stationery) or of any Forensic Department or Division of Forensic Science Laboratory or any Government Examiner of Questioned Documents or any State Examiner of Questioned Documents, as the case may be,] as the Central Government may, by notification, specify in this behalf, upon any matter or thing duly submitted to him for examination and report in the course of any proceeding under this Code, may be used as evidence in any inquiry, trial or other proceeding under this Code, although such officer is not called as a witness.

(2) The Court may, if it thinks fit, summon and examine any such officer as to the subject-matter of his report:

Provided that no such officer shall be summoned to produce any records on which the report is based.

(3) Without prejudice to the provisions of Sections 123 and 124 of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 (1 of 1872), no such officer shall, [except with the permission of the General Manager or any officer in charge of any Mint or of any Note Printing Press or of any Security Printing Press or of any Forensic Department or any officer in charge of the Forensic Science Laboratory or of the Government Examiner of Questioned Documents Organisation or of the State Examiner of Questioned Documents Organisation, as the case may be,] be permitted-

(a) to give any evidence derived from any unpublished official records on which the report is based; or

(b) to disclose the nature or particulars of any test applied by him in the course of examination of the matter or thing.

293. Reports of certain Government scientific experts. – (1) Any document purporting to be a report under the hand of a Government scientific expert to whom this Section applies, upon any matter or thing duly submitted to him for examination or analysis and report in the course of any proceeding under this Code, may be used as evidence in any inquiry, trial or other proceeding under this Code.

(2) The Court may, if it thinks fit, summon and examine any such expert as to the subject-matter of his report.

(3) Where any such expert is summoned by a Court and he is unable to attend personally, he may, unless the Court has expressly directed him to appear personally, depute any responsible officer working with him to attend the Court, if such officer is conversant with the facts of the case and can satisfactorily depose in Court on his behalf.

(4) This section applies to the following Government scientific experts, namely :-

(a) any Chemical Examiner or Assistant Chemical Examiner to Government;

[(b) the Chief Controller of Explosives;]

(c) the Director of the Finger Print Bureau;

(d) the Director, Haffkeine Institute, Bombay;

(e) the Director [Deputy Director or Assistant Director] of a Central Forensic Science Laboratory or a State Forensic Science Laboratory;

(f) the Serologist to the Government.

[(g) any other Government Scientific Expert specified, by notification, by the Central Government for this purpose.]

294. No formal proof of certain documents. – (1) Where any document is filed before any Court by the prosecution or the accused, the particulars of every such document shall be included in a list and the prosecution or the accused, as the case may be, or the pleader for the prosecution or the accused, if any, shall be called upon to admit or deny the genuineness of each such document.

(2) The list of documents shall be in such form as may be prescribed by the State Government.

(3) Where the genuineness of any document is not disputed, such document may be read in evidence in any inquiry, trial or other proceeding under this Code without proof of the signature of the person to whom it purports to be signed :

Provided that the Court may, in its discretion, require such signature to be proved.

295. Affidavit in proof of conduct of public servants. – When any application is made to any Court in the course of any inquiry, trial or other proceeding under this Code, and allegations are made therein respecting any public servant, the applicant may give evidence of the facts alleged in the application by affidavit, and the Court may, if it thinks fit, order that evidence relating to such facts be so given.

296. Evidence of formal character on affidavit. – (1) The evidence of any person whose evidence is of a formal character may be given by affidavit and may, subject to all just exceptions, be read in evidence in any inquiry, trial or other proceeding under this Code.

(2) The Court may, if it thinks fit, and shall, on the application of the prosecution or the accused, summon and examine any such person as to the facts contained in his affidavit.

297. Authorities before whom affidavits may be sworn. – (1) Affidavits to be used before any Court under this Code may be sworn or affirmed before –

[(a) any Judge or any Judicial or Executive Magistrate, or]

(b) any Commissioner of Oaths appointed by a High Court or Court of Session; or

(c) any Notary appointed under the Notaries Act, 1952 (53 of 1952).

(2) Affidavits shall be confined to, and shall state separately, such facts as the deponent is able to prove from his own knowledge and such facts as he has reasonable ground to believe to be true, and in the latter case, the deponent shall clearly state the grounds of such belief.

(3) The Court may order any scandalous and irrelevant matter in the affidavit to be struck out or amended.

298. Previous conviction or acquittal how proved. – In any inquiry, trial or other proceeding under this Code, a previous conviction or acquittal may be proved, in addition to any mode provided by any law for the time being in force, –

(a) by an extract certified under the hand of the officer having the custody of the records of the Court in which such conviction or acquittal was held, to be a copy of the sentence or order, or

(b) in case of a conviction, either by a certificate signed by the officer in charge of the jail in which the punishment or any part thereof was undergone, or by production of the warrant of commitment under which the punishment was suffered, together with, in each of such cases, evidence as to identity of the accused person with the person so convicted or acquitted.

299. Record of evidence in absence of accused. – (1) If it is proved that an accused person has absconded, and that there is no immediate prospect of arresting him, the Court competent to try [or commit for trial], such person for the offence complained of, may, in his absence, examine the witnesses (if any) produced on behalf of the prosecution, and record their depositions and any such deposition may, on the arrest of such person, be given in evidence against him on the inquiry into, or trial for, the offence with which he is charged, if the deponent is dead or incapable of giving evidence or cannot be found or his presence cannot be procured without an amount of delay, expense or inconvenience which, under the circumstances of the case, would be unreasonable.

(2) If it appears that an offence punishable with death or imprisonment for life has been committed by some person or persons unknown, the High Court or the Sessions Judge may direct that any Magistrate of the first class shall hold an inquiry and examine any witness who can give evidence concerning the offence and any depositions so taken may be given in evidence against any person who is subsequently accused of the offence, if the deponent is dead or incapable of giving evidence or beyond the limit of India.

CHAPTER XXIV

General Provisions As To Inquiries And Trials

300. Person once convicted or acquitted not to be tried for same offence. – (1) A person who has once been tried by a Court of competent jurisdiction for an offence and convicted or acquitted of such offence shall, while such conviction or acquittal remains in force, not be liable to be tried again for the same offence, nor on the same facts for any other offence for which a different charge from the one made against him might have been made under sub-section (1) of Section 221, or for which he might have been convicted under sub-section (2) thereof.

(2) A person acquitted or convicted of any offence may be afterwards tried, with the consent of the State Government, for any distinct offence for which a separate charge might have been made against him at the former trial under sub-section (1) of Section 220.

(3) A person convicted of any offence constituted by any act causing consequences which, together with such act, constituted a different offence from that of which he was convicted, may be afterwards tried for such last-mentioned offence, if the consequences had not happened, or were not known to the Court to have happened, at the time when he was convicted.

(4) A person acquitted or convicted of any offence constituted by any acts may, notwithstanding such acquittal or conviction, be subsequently charged with, and tried for, any other offence constituted by the same acts which he may have committed if the Court by which he was first tried was not competent to try the offence with which he is subsequently charged.

(5) A person discharged under Section 258 shall not be tried again for the same offence except with the consent of the Court by which he was discharged or of any Court to which the first mentioned Court is subordinate.

(6) Nothing in this section shall affect the provisions of Section 26 of the General Clauses Act, 1897 (10 of 1897) or of Section 188 of this Code.

Explanation. – The dismissal of a complaint, or the discharge of the accused is not an acquittal for the purposes of this section.

Illustrations

(a) A is tried upon a charge of theft as a servant and acquitted. He cannot afterwards, while the acquittal remains in force, be charged with theft as a servant, or, upon the same facts, with theft simply, or with criminal breach of trust.

(b) A is tried for causing grievous hurt and convicted. The person injured afterwards dies. A may be tried again for culpable homicide.

(c) A is charged before the Court of Session and convicted of the culpable homicide of B. A may not afterwards be tried on the same facts for the murder of B.

(d) A is charged by a Magistrate of the first class with, and convicted by him of, voluntarily causing hurt to B. A may not afterwards be tried for voluntarily causing grievous hurt to B on the same facts, unless this case comes within sub-section (3) of this section.

(e) A is charged by a Magistrate of the second class with, and convicted by him of, theft of property from the person of B. A may subsequently be charged with, and tried for, robbery on the same facts.

(f) A, B and C are charged by a Magistrate of the first class with, and convicted by him of, robbing D. A, B and C may afterwards be charged with, and tried for, dacoity on the same facts.

301. Appearance by Public Prosecutors. – (1) The Public Prosecutor or Assistant Public Prosecutor in charge of a case may appear and plead without any written authority before any Court in which that case is under inquiry, trial or appeal.

(2) If in any such case any private person instructs a pleader to prosecute any person in any Court, the Public Prosecutor or Assistant Public Prosecutor in charge of the case shall conduct the prosecution, and the pleader so instructed shall act therein under the directions of the Public Prosecutor or Assistant Public Prosecutor, and may, with the permission of the Court, submit written arguments after the evidence is closed in the case.

302. Permission to conduct prosecution. – (1) Any Magistrate inquiring into or trying a case may permit the prosecution to be conducted by any person other than a police officer below the rank of Inspector; but no person, other than the Advocate-General or Government Advocate or a Public Prosecutor or Assistant Public Prosecutor, shall be entitled to do so without such permission :

Provided that no police officer shall be permitted to conduct the prosecution if he has taken part in the investigation into the offence with respect to which the accused is being prosecuted.

(2) Any person conducting the prosecution may do so personally or by a pleader.

303. Right of person against whom proceedings are instituted to be defended. – Any person accused of an offence before a Criminal Court, or against whom proceedings are instituted under this Code, may of right be defended by a pleader of his choice.

304. Legal aid to accused at State expense in certain cases. – (1) Where, in a trial before the Court of Session, the accused is not represented by a pleader, and where it appears to the Court that the accused has not sufficient means to engage a pleader, the Court shall assign a pleader for his defence at the expense of the State.

(2) The High Court may, with the previous approval of the State Government, make rules providing for –

(a) the mode of selecting pleaders for defence under sub-section (1);

(b) the facilities to be allowed to such pleaders by the Courts;

(c) the fees payable to such pleaders by the Government, and generally, for carrying out the purposes of sub-section (1).

(3) The State Government may, by notification, direct that, as from such date as may be specified in the notification, the provisions of sub-sections (1) and (2) shall apply in relation to any class of trials before other Courts in the State as they apply in relation to trials before Courts of Session.

305. Procedure when corporation or registered society is an accused. – (1) In this section, “corporation” means an incorporated company or other body corporate, and includes a society registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 (21 of 1860).

(2) Where a corporation is the accused person or one of the accused persons in an inquiry or trial, it may appoint a representative for the purpose of the inquiry or trial and such appointment need not be under the seal of the corporation.

(3) Where a representative of a corporation appears, any requirement of this Code that anything shall be done in the presence of the accused or shall be read or stated or explained to the accused, shall be construed as a requirement that that thing shall be done in the presence of the representative or read or stated or explained to the representative, and any requirement that the accused shall be examined shall be construed as a requirement that the representative shall be examined.

(4) Where a representative of a corporation does not appear, any such requirement as is referred to in sub-section (3) shall not apply.

(5) Where a statement in writing purporting to be signed by the managing director of the corporation or by any person (by whatever name called) having, or being one of the persons having the management of the affairs of the corporation to the effect that the person named in the statement has been appointed as the representative of the corporation for the purposes of this section, is filed, the Court shall, unless the contrary is proved, presume that such person has been so appointed.

(6) If a question arises as to whether any person, appearing as the representative of a corporation in an inquiry or trial before a Court is or is not such representative, the question shall be determined by the Court.

306. Tender of pardon to accomplice. – (1) With a view to obtaining the evidence of any person supposed to have been directly or indirectly concerned in or privy to an offence to which this section applies, the Chief Judicial Magistrate or a Metropolitan Magistrate at any stage of the investigation or inquiry into, or the trial of, the offence, and the Magistrate of the first class inquiring into or trying the offence, at any stage of the inquiry or trial, may tender a pardon to such person on condition of his making full and true disclosure of the whole of the circumstances within his knowledge relative to the offence and to every other person concerned, whether as principal or abettor, in the commission thereof.

(2) This section applies to –

(a) any offence triable exclusively by the Court of Session or by the Court of a Special Judge appointed under the Criminal Law Amendment Act, 1952 (46 of 1952);

(b) any offence punishable with imprisonment which may extend to seven years or with a more severe sentence.

(3) Every Magistrate who tenders a pardon under sub-section (1) shall record –

(a) his reasons for so doing;

(b) whether the tender was or was not accepted by the person to whom it was made, and shall, on application made by the accused, furnish him with a copy of such record free of cost.

(4) Every person accepting a tender of pardon made under sub-section (1) –

(a) shall be examined as a witness in the Court of the Magistrate taking cognizance of the offence and in the subsequent trial, if any;

(b) shall, unless he is already on bail, be detained in custody until the termination of the trial.

(5) Where a person has accepted a tender of pardon made under sub-section (1) and has been examined under sub-section (4), the Magistrate taking cognizance of the offence shall, without making any further inquiry in the case, –

(a) commit it for trial –

(i) to the Court of Session if the offence is triable exclusively by that Court or if the Magistrate taking cognizance is the Chief Judicial Magistrate;

(ii) to a Court of Special Judge appointed under the Criminal Law Amendment Act, 1952 (46 of 1952), if the offence is triable exclusively by that Court;

(b) in any other case, make over the case to the Chief Judicial Magistrate who shall try the case himself.

307. Power to direct tender of pardon. – At any time after commitment of a case but before judgment is passed, the Court to which the commitment is made may, with a view to obtaining at the trial the evidence of any person supposed to have been directly or indirectly concerned in, or privy to, any such offence, tender a pardon on the same condition to such person.

308. Trial of person not complying with conditions of pardon. – (1) Where, in regard to a person who has accepted a tender of pardon made under Section 306 or Section 307, the Public Prosecutor certifies that in his opinion such person has, either by wilfully concealing anything essential or by giving false evidence, not complied with the condition on which the tender was made, such person may be tried for the offence in respect of which the pardon was so tendered or for any other offence of which he appears to have been guilty in connection with the same matter, and also for the offence of giving false evidence :

Provided that such person shall not be tried jointly with any of the other accused :

Provided further that such person shall not be tried for the offence of giving false evidence except with the sanction of the High Court, and nothing contained in Section 195 or Section 340 shall apply to that offence.

(2) Any statement made by such person accepting the tender of pardon and recorded by a Magistrate under Section 164 or by a Court under sub-section (4) of Section 306 may be given in evidence against him at such trial.

(3) At such trial, the accused shall be entitled to plead that he has complied with the condition upon which such tender was made; in which case it shall be for the prosecution to prove that the condition has not been complied with.

(4) At such trial, the Court shall –

(a) if it is a Court of Session, before the charge is read out and explained to the accused;

(b) if it is the Court of a Magistrate, before the evidence of the witnesses for the prosecution is taken;

ask the accused whether he pleads that he has complied with the conditions on which the tender of pardon was made.

(5) If the accused does so plead, the Court shall record the plea and proceed with the trial and it shall, before passing judgment in the case, find whether or not the accused has complied with the conditions of the pardon, and, if it finds that he has so complied, it shall, notwithstanding anything contained in this Code, pass judgment of acquittal.

309. Power to postpone or adjourn proceedings. – [(1) In every inquiry or trial the proceedings shall be continued from day-to-day until all the witnesses in attendance have been examined, unless the Court finds the adjournment of the same beyond the following day to be necessary for reasons to be recorded:

Provided that when the inquiry or trial relates to an offence under section 376, [section 376A, section 376AB, section 376B, section 376C, section 376D, section 376DA, section 376DB of the Indian Penal Code, the inquiry or trial shall] be completed within a period of two months from the date of filing of the charge sheet.]

(2) If the Court, after taking cognizance of an offence, or commencement of trial, finds it necessary or advisable to postpone the commencement of, or adjourn, any inquiry or trial, it may, from time to time, for reasons to be recorded, postpone or adjourn the same on such terms as it thinks fit, for such time as it considers reasonable and may by a warrant remand the accused if in custody :

Provided that no Magistrate shall remand an accused person to custody under this section for a term exceeding fifteen days at a time :

Provided further that when witnesses are in attendance, no adjournment or postponement shall be granted, without examining them, except for special reasons to be recorded in writing :

[Provided also that no adjournment shall be granted for the purpose only of enabling the accused person to show cause against the sentence proposed to be imposed on him.]

[Provided also that-

(a) no adjournment shall be granted at the request of a party, except where the circumstances are beyond the control of that party;

(b) the fact that the ple3ader of a party is engaged in another Court, shall not be a ground for adjournment;

(c) where a witness is present in Court but a party or his pleader is not present or the party or his pleader though present in Court, is not ready to examine or cross-examine the witness, the Court may, if thinks fit, record the statement of the witness and pass such orders as it thinks fit dispensing with the examination-in-chief or cross-examination of the witness, as the case may be.]

Explanation 1. – If sufficient evidence has been obtained to raise a suspicion that the accused may have committed an offence, and it appears likely that further evidence may be obtained by a remand, this is a reasonable cause for a remand.

Explanation 2. – The terms on which an adjournment or postponement may be granted include, in appropriate cases, the payment of costs by the prosecution or the accused.

310. Local Inspection. – (1) Any Judge or Magistrate may, at any stage of any inquiry, trial or other proceeding, after due notice to the parties, visit and inspect any place in which an offence is alleged to have been committed, or any other place which it is in his opinion necessary to view for the purpose of properly appreciating the evidence given at such inquiry or trial, and shall without unnecessary delay record a memorandum of any relevant facts observed at such inspection.

(2) Such memorandum shall form part of the record of the case and if the prosecutor, complainant or accused or any other party to the case, so desires, a copy of the memorandum shall be furnished to him free of cost.

311. Power to summon material witness, or examine person present. – Any Court may, at any stage of any inquiry, trial or other proceeding under this Code, summon any person in attendance, though not summoned as a witness, or recall and re-examine any person already examined; and the Court shall summon and examine or recall and re-examine any such person if his evidence appears to it to be essential to the just decision of the case.

[311-A. Power of Magistrate to order person to give specimen signatures or handwriting. – If a Magistrate of the first class is satisfied that, for the purposes of any investitgation or proceeding under this Code, it is expedient to direct any person, including an accused person, to give specimen signatures or handwriting, he may make an order to that effect and in that case the person to whom the order relates shall be produced or shall attend at the time and place specified in such order and shall give his specimen signatures or handwriting:

Provided that no order shall be made under this Section unless the person has at some time been arrested in connection with such investigation or proceeding.]

312. Expenses of complainants and witnesses. – Subject to any rules made by the State Government, any Criminal Court may, if it thinks fit, order payment, on the part of Government, of the reasonable expenses of any complainant or witness attending for the purposes of any inquiry, trial or other proceeding before such Court under this Code.

313. Power to examine the accused. – (1) In every inquiry or trial, for the purpose of enabling the accused personally to explain any circumstances appearing in the evidence against him, the Court –

(a) may at any stage, without previously warning the accused, put such questions to him as the Court considers necessary;

(b) shall, after the witnesses for the prosecution have been examined and before he is called on for his defence, question him generally on the case :

Provided that in a summons-case, where the Court has dispensed with the personal attendance of the accused, it may also dispense with his examination under clause (b).

(2) No oath shall be administered to the accused when he is examined under sub-section (1).

(3) The accused shall not render himself liable to punishment by refusing to answer such questions, or by giving false answers to them.

(4) The answers given by the accused may be taken into consideration in such inquiry or trial, and put in evidence for or against him in any other inquiry into, or trial for, any other offence which such answers may tend to show he has committed.

[(5) The Court may take help of Prosecutor and Defence Counsel in preparing relevant questions which are to be put to the accused and the Court may permit filing of written statement by the accused as sufficient compliance of this section.]

314. Oral arguments and memorandum of arguments. – (1) Any party to a proceeding may, as soon as may be, after the close of his evidence, address concise oral arguments, and may, before he concludes the oral arguments, if any, submit a memorandum to the Court setting forth concisely and under distinct headings, the arguments in support of his case and every such memorandum shall form part of the record.

(2) A copy of every such memorandum shall be simultaneously furnished to the opposite party.

(3) No adjournment of the proceedings shall be granted for the purpose of filing the written arguments unless the Court, for reasons to be recorded in writing, considers it necessary to grant such adjournment.

(4) The Court may, if it is of opinion that the oral arguments are not concise or relevant, regulate such arguments.

315. Accused person to be competent witness. – (1) Any person accused of an offence before a Criminal Court shall be a competent witness for the defence and may give evidence on oath in disproof of the charges made against him or any person charged together with him at the same trial :

Provided that –

(a) he shall not be called as a witness except on his own request in writing;

(b) his failure to give evidence shall not be made the subject of any comment by any of the parties or the Court or give rise to any presumption against himself or any person charged together with him at the same trial.

(2) Any person against whom proceedings are instituted in any Criminal Court under Section 98, or Section 107, or Section 108, or Section 109, or Section 110, or under Chapter IX or under Part B, Part C or Part D of Chapter X, may offer himself as a witness in such proceedings :

Provided that in proceedings under Section 108, Section 109 or Section 110, the failure of such person to give evidence shall not be made the subject of any comment by any of the parties or the Court or give rise to any presumption against him or any other person proceeded against together with him at the same inquiry.

316. No influence to be used to induce disclosure. – Except as provided in Sections 306 and 307, no influence, by means of any promise or threat or otherwise, shall be used to an accused person to induce him to disclose or withhold any matter within his knowledge.

317. Provision for inquiries and trial being held in the absence of accused in certain cases. – (1) At any stage of an inquiry or trial under this Code, if the Judge or Magistrate is satisfied, for reasons to be recorded, that the personal attendance of the accused before the Court is not necessary in the interests of justice, or that the accused persistently disturbs the proceedings in Court, the Judge or Magistrate may, if the accused is represented by a pleader, dispense with his attendance and proceed with such inquiry or trial in his absence, and may, at any subsequent stage of the proceedings, direct the personal attendance of such accused.

(2) If the accused in any such case is not represented by a pleader, or if the Judge or Magistrate considers his personal attendance necessary, he may, if he thinks fit and for reasons to be recorded by him, either adjourn such inquiry or trial, or order that the case of such accused be taken up or tried separately.

318. Procedure where accused does not understand proceedings. – If the accused, though not of unsound mind, cannot be made to understand the proceedings, the Court may proceed with the inquiry or trial, and, in the case of a Court other than a High Court, if such proceedings result in a conviction, the proceedings shall be forwarded to the High Court with a report of the circumstances of the case, and the High Court shall pass thereon such order as it thinks fit.

319. Power to proceed against other persons appearing to be guilty of offence. – (1) Where, in the course of any inquiry into, or trial of, an offence, it appears from the evidence that any person not being the accused has committed any offence for which such person could be tried together with the accused, the Court may proceed against such person for the offence which he appears to have committed.

(2) Where such person is not attending the Court, he may be arrested or summoned, as the circumstances of the case may require, for the purpose aforesaid.

(3) Any person attending the Court, although not under arrest or upon a summons, may be detained by such Court for the purpose of the inquiry into, or trial of, the offence which he appears to have committed.

(4) Where the Court proceeds against any person under sub-section (1), then –

(a) the proceedings in respect of such person shall be commenced afresh, and the witnesses re-heard;

(b) subject to the provisions of clause (a), the case may proceed as if such person had been an accused person when the Court took cognizance of the offence upon which the inquiry or trial was commenced.

320. Compounding of offences. – (1) The offences punishable under the sections of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), specified in the first two columns of the Table next following may be compounded by the persons mentioned in the third column of that Table :-

[TABLE]

Offence. Section of the Indian Penal Code applicable. Person by whom offence may be compounded
1. 2. 3
Uttering words.. etc.. with deliberate intent to wound the religious feelings of any person. 298. The person whose religious feelings are intended to be wounded.
Voluntarily causing hurt. 323. The person to whom the hurt is caused.
Voluntarily causing hurt on provocation. 334. Ditto.
Voluntarily causing grievous hurt on provocation. 335. Ditto.
Wrongfully restraining or confining any person. 341,342. The person restrained or confined.
Wrongfully confining a person for three days or more. 343. The person confined.
Wrongfully confining a person for ten days or more. 344. Ditto.
Wrongfully confining a person in secret. 346. Ditto.
Assault or use of criminal force. 352,355, 358. The person assaulted or to whom criminal force is used.
Theft. 379. The owner of the property stolen.
Dishonest misappropriation of property. 403. The owner of the property misappropriated.
Criminal breach of trust by a carrier.. wharfinger. etc. 407. Ditto.
Dishonestly receiving stolen property knowing it to be stolen. 411. The owner of the property stolen.
Assisting in the concealment or disposal of stolen property. knowing it to be stolen. 414. Ditto.
Cheating. 417. The person cheated.
Cheating by personation. 419. Ditto.
Fraudulent removal or concealment of property. etc. to prevent distribution among creditors. 421. The creditors who are affected thereby.
Fraudulently preventing from being made available for his creditors a debt or demand due to the offender. 422. Ditto.
Fraudulent execution of deed of transfer containing false statement of consideration. 423. The person affected thereby.
Fraudulent removal or concealment of property. 424. Ditto.
Mischief.. when the only loss or damage caused is loss or damage to a private person. 426, 427. The person to whom the loss or damage is caused.
Mischief by killing or maiming animal. 428. The owner of the animal.
Mischief by killing or maiming cattle.. etc. 429. The owner of the cattle or animal.
Mischief by injury to works of irrigation by wrongfully diverting water when the only loss or damage caused is loss or damage to private person. 430. The person to whom the loss or damage is caused.
Criminal trespass. 447. The person in possession of the property trespassed upon.
House-trespass. 448. Ditto.
House-trespass to commit an offence (other than theft) punishable with imprisonment. 451. The person in possession of the house trespassed upon.
Using a false trade or property mark. 482. The person to whom loss or injury is caused by such use.
Counterfeiting a trade or property mark used by another. 483. The person to whom loss or injury is caused by such use.
Knowingly selling. or exposing or possessing for sale or for manufacturing purpose. goods marked with a counterfeit property mark. 486. Ditto.
Criminal breach of contract of service. 491. The person with whom the offender has contracted.
Adultery. 497. The husband of the woman.
Enticing or taking away or detaining with criminal intent a married woman. 498. The husband of the woman and the woman.
Defamation.. except such cases as are specified against section 500 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) in column 1 of the Table under sub-section (2). 500. The person defamed.
Printing or engraving matter.. knowing it to be defamatory. 501. Ditto.
Sale of printed or engraved substance containing defamatory matter. knowing it to contain such matter. 502. Ditto.
Insult intended to provoke a breach of the peace. 504. The person insulted.
Criminal intimidation. 506. The person intimidated.
Inducing person to believe himself and object of divine displeasure. 508. The person induced.]

(2) The offences punishable under the Sections of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), specified in the first two columns of the Table next following may, with the permission of the Court before which any prosecution for such offence is pending be compounded by the persons mentioned in the third column of that Table :-

TABLE

Offence Section of the Indian Penal Code applicable Person by whom offence may be compounded
1 2 3
Causing miscarriage. 312 The woman to whom miscarriage is caused.
Voluntarily causing grievous hurt. 325 The person to whom hurt is caused.
Causing hurt by doing an act so rashly and negligently as to endanger human life or the personal safety of others. 337 Ditto
Causing grievous hurt by doing an act so rashly and negligently as to endanger human life or the personal safety of others. 338 Ditto
Assault or criminal force in attempting wrongfully to confine a person. 357 The person assaulted or to whom the force was used.
Theft by clerk or servant of property in possession of master. 381 The owner of the property stolen.
Criminal breach of trust. 406 The owner of property in respect of which the breach of trust has been committed.
Criminal breach of trust by a clerk or servant. 408 Ditto
Cheating a person whose interest the offender was bound either by law or by legal contract to protect. 418 The person cheated.
Cheating and dishonestly inducing delivery of property or the making alteration or destruction of a valuable security. 420 The person cheated.
Marrying again during the life-time of a husband or wife. 494 The husband or wife of the person so marrying.
Defamation against the President or the Vice-President or the Governor of a State or the Administrator of a Union territory or a Minister in respect of his public functions when instituted upon a complaint made by the Public Prosecutor. 500 The person defamed.
Uttering words or sounds or making gestures or exhibiting any object intending to insult the modesty of a woman or intruding upon the privacy of a woman. 509 The woman whom it was intended to insult or whose privacy was intruded upon.]
114. Abetment of any offence, if abettor is present when offence is committed. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
115. Abetment of an offence, punishable with death or imprisonment for life, if the offence be not committed in consequence of the abetment. Imprisonment for 7 years and fine. Ditto Non-bailable Ditto.
…. If an act which causes harm be done in consequence of the abetment. Imprisonment for 14 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
116. Abetment of an offence, punishable with imprisonment, if the offence be not committed in consequence of the abetment. Imprisonment extending to a quarter part of the longest term provided for the offence, or fine, or both. Ditto According as offence abetted is bailable or non-bailable. Ditto  
….. If the abettor or the person abetted be a public servant whose duty it is to prevent the offence. Imprisonment extending to half of the longest term provided for the offence, or fine, or both. Ditto Ditto Ditto
117. Abetting the commission of an offence by the public, or by more than ten persons. Imprisonment for 3 years, or fine, or both. Ditto Ditto Ditto
118. Concealing a design to commit an offence punishable with death or imprisonment for life, if the offence be committed. Imprisonment for 7 years and fine. Ditto Non-bailable Ditto
If the offence be not committed. Imprisonment for 3 years and fine. Ditto Bailable Ditto
119. A public servant concealing a design to commit an offence which it is his duty to prevent, if the offence be committed. Imprisonment extending to half of the longest term provided for the offence, or fine, or both According as offence is cognisable or non-cognisable According as offence, abetted is bailable or non-bailable. Court by which offence abetted is triable
…. If the offence be punishable with death or imprisonment for life. Imprisonment for 10 years. Ditto Non-bailable Ditto
If the offence be not committed. Imprisonment extending to a quarter part of the longest term provided for the offence, or fine, or both. Ditto Bailable Ditto
120. Concealing a design to commit an offence punishable with imprisonment, if offence be committed. Ditto Ditto According as offence, abetted is bailable or non-bailable. Ditto
If the offence be not committed. Imprisonment extending to one,eighth part of the longest term provided for the offence, or fine, or both Ditto Bailable Ditto

CHAPTER V-A

CRIMINAL CONSPIRACY

120-B. Criminal conspiracy to commit an offence punishable with death, imprisonment for life or rigorous imprisonment for a term of 2 years or upwards Same as for abetment of the offence which is the object of the conspiracy. According as the offence which is the object of conspiracy is cognisable or non-cognisable According as offence which is object of conspiracy is bailable or non-bailable. Court by which abetment of the offence which is the object of conspiracy is triable.
Any other criminal conspiracy. Imprisonment for 6 months, or fine, or both. Non-cognisable Bailable Magistrate of the first class.

CHAPTER VI

OFFENCES AGAINST THE STATE

121. Waging or attempting to wage war, or abetting the waging of war, against the Government of India. Death or imprisonment for life and fine. Cognisable Non-bailable Court of Session
121-A. Conspiring to commit certain offences against the State. Imprisonment for life, or imprisonment for 10 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
122. Collecting arms, etc. with the intention of waging war against the Government of India. Imprisonment for life, or imprisonment for 10 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
123. Concealing with intent to facilitate a design to wage war. Imprisonment for 10 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
124. Assaulting President, Governor, etc., with intent to compel or restrain the exercise of any lawful power. Imprisonment for 7 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
124A. Sedition Imprisonment for life and fine, or imprisonment for 3 years and fine, or fine Ditto Ditto Ditto
125. Waging war against any Asiatic power in alliance or at peace with the Government of India, or abetting the waging of such war. Imprisonment for life and fine, or imprisonment for 7 years and fine, or fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto.
126. Committing depredation on the territories of any power in alliance or at peace with the Government of India. Imprisonment for 7 years and fine, and forfeiture of certain of property. Ditto Ditto Ditto
127. Receiving property taken by war or depredation mentioned in sections 125 and 126. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
128. Public servant voluntarily allowing prisoner of State or war in his custody to escape. Imprisonment for life, or imprisonment for 10 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
129. Public servant negligently suffering prisoner of State or war in his custody to escape. Simple imprisonment for 3 years and fine. Ditto Bailable Magistrate of the first class
130. Aiding escape of, rescuing or harbouring, such prisoner, or offering any resistance to the recapture of such prisoner. Imprisonment for life, or imprisonment for 10 years and fine. Ditto Non-bailable Court of Session

CHAPTER VII

OFFENCES RELATING TO THE ARMY, NAVY AND FORCE

131. Abetting mutiny, or attempting to seduce an officer, soldier, sailor or airman from his allegiance or duty. Imprisonment for life, or imprisonment for 10 years and fine. Cognisable Non-bailable Court of Session
132. Abetment of mutiny, if mutiny is committed in consequence thereof. Death, or imprisonment for life, or imprisonment for 10 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
133. Abetment of an assault by an officer, soldier, sailor or airman on his superior officer, when in the execution of his office. Imprisonment for 3 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Magistrate of the first class.
134. Abetment of such assault, if the assault is committed. Imprisonment for 7 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
135. Abetment of the desertion of an officer, soldier, sailor or airman. Imprisonment for 2 years, or fine or both. Ditto Bailable Any Magistrate
136. Harbouring such an officer, soldier, sailor or airman who has deserted. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
137. Deserter concealed on board merchant vessel, through negligence of master or person in charge thereof. Fine of 500 rupees. Non-cognisable Ditto Ditto
138. Abetment of act of insubordination by an officer, soldier, sailor or airman, if the offence be committed in consequence. Imprisonment for 6 months or fine, or both. Cognisable Ditto Ditto
140. Wearing the dress or carrying any token used by a soldier, sailor or airman with intent that it may be believed that he is such a soldier, sailor or airman. Imprisonment for 3 months, or fine of 500 rupees, or both. Ditto Ditto Ditto.

CHAPTER VIII

OFFENCES AGAINST THE PUBLIC TRANQUILLITY

143. Being member of an unlawful assembly. Imprisonment for 6 months, or fine, or both. Cognisable Bailable Any Magistrate
144. Joining an unlawful assembly armed with any deadly weapon. Imprisonment for 2 years, or fine, or both. Ditto Ditto Ditto
145. Joining or continuing in an unlawful assembly, knowing that it has been commanded to disperse. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
147. Rioting. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
148. Rioting armed with a deadly weapon. Imprisonment for 3 years, or fine, or both. Ditto Ditto Magistrate of the first class
149. If an offence be committed by any member of an unlawful assembly, every other member of such assembly shall be guilty of the offence. The same as for the offence. According as offence is cognisable or non-cognisable According as offence is bailable or non-bailable Court by which the offence is triable
150. Hiring, engaging or employing persons to take part in an unlawful assembly. The same as for a member of such assembly, and for any offence committed by any member of such assembly. Cognisable Ditto Ditto
151. Knowingly joining or continuing in any assembly of five or more persons after it has been commanded to disperse. Imprisonment for 6 months, or fine, or both. Ditto Bailable Any Magistrate
152. Assaulting or obstructing public servant when suppressing riot etc. Imprisonment for 3 years, or fine, or both. Ditto Ditto Magistrate of the first class.
153. Wantonly giving provocation with intent to cause riot, if rioting be committed. Imprisonment for 1 year, or fine, or both. Ditto Ditto Any Magistrate  
If not committed Imprisonment for 6 months, or fine, or both. Ditto Ditto Magistrate of the first class
153-A. Promoting enmity between classes. Imprisonment for 3 years, or fine or both. Ditto Non-bailable Ditto
153-AA. [Knowingly carrying arms in any procession or organising or holding or taking part in any mass drill or mass training with arms Imprisonment for 6 months and fine of 2000 rupees Cognisable Non-bailable Any Magistrate.]
…. Promoting enmity between classes in place of worship, etc. Imprisonment for 5 years, and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
153-B. Imputations, assertions prejudicial to national integration. Imprisonment for 3 years, or fine, or both. Ditto Ditto [Magistrate of the first class]
….. If committed in a place of public worship, etc. Imprisonment for 5 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
154. Owner or occupier of land not giving information of riot, etc. Fine of 1000 rupees. Non-cognisable Bailable Any Magistrate
155. Person for whose benefit or on whose behalf a riot takes place not using all lawful means to prevent it. Fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
156. Agent of owner or occupier for whose benefit a riot is committed not using all lawful means to prevent it. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
157. Harbouring persons hired for an unlawful assembly. Imprisonment for 6 months, or fine, or both. Cognisable Ditto Ditto
158. Being hired to take part in an unlawful assembly or riot. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
  Or to go armed. Imprisonment for 2 years, or fine, or both. Ditto Ditto Ditto
160. Committing affray. Imprisonment for one month, or fine of 100 rupees or both. Ditto Ditto Ditto

CHAPTER IX

OFFENCES BY OR RELATING TO PUBLIC SERVANTS

[161]. Being or expecting to be a public servant, and taking a gratification other than legal remuneration in respect of an official act. Imprisonment for 3 years, or fine, or both. Cognisable Non-bailable Magistrate of the first class
[162]. Taking a gratification in order, by corrupt or illegal means, to influence a public servant. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
[163]. Taking a gratification for the exercise of personal influence with a public servant. Simple imprisonment for 1 year, or fine, or both. Ditto Ditto Ditto
[164]. Abetment by public servant of the offences defined in the last two preceding clauses with reference to himself. Imprisonment for 3 years, or fine, or both. Ditto Ditto Ditto
[165]. Public servant obtaining any valuable thing, without consideration, from a person concerned in any proceeding or business transacted by such public servant. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
[165-A]. Punishment for abetment of offences punishable under section 161 or section 165. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
166. Public servant disobeying a direction of the law with intent to cause injury to any person. simple imprisonment for 1 year, or fine, or both. Non-cognisable Bailable Ditto
[166A Public servant disobeying direction under law Imprisonment for minimum 6 months which may extend to 2 years and fine Cognisable Bailable Magistrate of the first class
166B Non-treatment of victim by hospital Imprisonment for 1 years or fine or both Non-cognisable Bailable Magistrate of the first class]
167. Public servant framing an incorrect document with intent to cause injury. Imprisonment for 3 years, or fine, or both. Cognisable Ditto Ditto
168. Public servant unlawfully engaging in trade. Simple imprisonment for 1 year, or fine, or both. Non-cognisable Ditto Ditto
169. Public servant unlawfully buying or bidding for property. Simple imprisonment for 2 years, or fine, or both and confiscation of property, if purchased. Ditto Ditto Ditto
170. Personating a public servant. Imprisonment for 2 years, or fine, or both. Cognisable Non-bailable Any Magistrate
171. Wearing garb or carrying token used by public servant with fraudulent intent. Imprisonment for 3 months, or fine of 200 rupees, or both. Ditto Bailable Ditto

CHAPTER X

CONTEMPT OF THE LAWFUL AUTHORITY OF PUBLIC SERVANTS

172. Absconding to avoid service of summons or other proceeding from a public servant. Simple imprisonment for 1 month or fine of 500 rupees, or both. Non-cognisable Bailable Any Magistrate
…. If summons or notice require attendance in person, etc., in a Court of Justice. Simple imprisonment for 6 months, or fine of 1000 rupees, or both. Ditto Ditto Ditto
173. Preventing the service or the affixing of any summons of notice, or the removal of it when it has been affixed, or preventing a proclamation. Simple imprisonment for 1 month, or fine of 500 rupees, or both. Ditto Ditto Ditto
…. If summons etc., require attendance in person, etc., in a Court of Justice. Simple imprisonment for 6 months, or fine of 1000 rupees, or both. Ditto Ditto Ditto
174. Not obeying a legal order to attend at a certain place in person or by agent, or departing therefor without authority. Simple imprisonment for 1 month, or fine of 500 rupees, or both. Ditto Ditto Ditto
If the order requires personal attendance, etc., in a Court of Justice. Simple imprisonment for 6 months, or fine of 1000 rupees, or both. Ditto Ditto Ditto
[174-A . Failure to appear at specified place and specified time as required by a proclamation published under sub-Section (1) of Section 82 of this Code. Imprisonment for 3 years or with fine or with both Cognisable Non-bailable Magistrate of the first class.
…. In a case where declaration has been made under sub-Section (4) of Section 82 of this Code pronouncing a person as proclaimed offender. Imprisonment for 7 years and fine Ditto Ditto Ditto]
175. Intentionally omitting to produce a document to a public servant by a person legally bound to produce or deliver such document. Simple imprisonment for 1 month, or fine of 500 rupees, or both. [Non-cognisable] [Bailable]. The Court in which the offence is committed, subject to the provisions of Chapter XXVI; or, if not committed in a Court, any Magistrate.
…. If the document is required to be produced in or delivered to a Court of Justice. Simple imprisonment for 6 months, or fine of 1000 rupees, or both Ditto Ditto Ditto
176. Intentionally omitting to give service or information to a public servant by a person legally bound to give such notice or information. Simple imprisonment for 1 month, or fine of 500 rupees, or both. Ditto Ditto Any Magistrate.
If the notice or information required respects the commission of an offence, etc. Simple imprisonment for 6 months, or fine of 1000 rupees, or both. Ditto Ditto Ditto
If the notice or information is required by an order passed under sub-section (1) of section 356 of this Code. Imprisonment for 6 months, or fine of 1000 rupees, or both. Ditto Ditto Ditto
177. Knowingly furnishing false information to a public servant. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
If the information required respects the commission of an offence, etc. Imprisonment for 2 years, or fine, or both. Ditto Ditto Ditto
178. Refusing oath when duly required to take oath by a public servant. Simple imprisonment for 6 months, or fine of 1000 rupees, or both. Non-cognisable Bailable The Court in which the offence is committed subject to the provisions of Chapter XXVI; or, if not committed in a Court, any Magistrate.
179. Being legally bound to state truth, and refusing to answer questions. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
180. Refusing to sign a statement made to a public servant when legally required to do so. Simple imprisonment for 3 months, or fine of 500 rupees, or both. Ditto Ditto Ditto
181. Knowingly stating to a public servant on oath as true that which is false Imprisonment for 3 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Magistrate of the first class.
182. Giving false information to a public servant in order to cause him to use his lawful power to the injury or annoyance of any person. Imprisonment for 6 months, or fine of 1000 rupees, or both. Ditto Ditto Any Magistrate.
183. Resistance to the taking of property by the lawful authority of a public servant. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
184 Obstructing sale of property offered for sale by authority of a public servant. Imprisonment for 1 month, or fine of 500 rupees, or both. Ditto Ditto Ditto
185. Bidding by a person under a legal incapacity to purchase it, for property at a lawfully authorised sale, or bidding without intending to perform the obligations incurred thereby. Imprisonment for 1 month, or fine of 200 rupees, or both. Ditto Ditto Ditto
186. Obstructing public servant in discharge of his public functions. Imprisonment for 3 months, or fine of 500 rupees, or both Ditto Ditto Ditto

State Amendment – [Andhra Pradesh]. – In Andhra Pradesh the offence under section 186 is Cognisable – A.P.G.O. Ms. No. 782,, Dated 5-12-1991.

187. Omission to assist public servant when bound by law to give such assistance. Simple imprisonment for one month, or fine of 200 rupees, or both. Ditto Ditto Ditto
Wilfully neglecting to aid a public servant who demands aid in the execution of process, the prevention of offences, etc. Simple imprisonment for 6 months, or fine of 500 rupees, or both. Ditto Ditto Ditto
188. Disobedience to an order lawfully promulgated by a public servant, if such disobedience causes obstruction, annoyance or injury to persons lawfully employed. Simple imprisonment for 1 month, or fine of 200 rupees, or both. Cognisable Ditto Ditto
If such disobedience causes danger to human life, health or safety, etc. Imprisonment for 6 months, or fine of 1000 rupees, or both Ditto Ditto Ditto
189. Threatening a public servant with injury to him or one in whom he is interested, to induce him to do or forbear to do any official act. Imprisonment for 2 years, or fine, or both. Non-cognisable Ditto Ditto

State Amendment – [Andhra Pradesh – In Andhra Pradesh the offence under Section 189 is Cognisable – A.P.G.O. Ms. No. 732,, Dated 5-12-1991.

190. Threatening any person to induce him to refrain from making a legal application for protection from injury. Imprisonment for 1 year, or fine, or both Ditto Ditto Ditto

State Amendment – [Andhra Pradesh]. – In Andhra Pradesh the offence under section 190 is Cognisable – A.P.G.O. Ms. No. 732,, Dated 5-12-1991.

CHAPTER XI

FALSE EVIDENCE AND OFFENCES AGAINST PUBLIC JUSTICE

193. Giving or fabricating false evidence in a judicial proceeding. Imprisonment for 7 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Magistrate of the first class  
  Giving or fabricating false evidence in any other case. Imprisonment for 3 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Any Magistrate  
194. Giving or fabricating false evidence with intent to cause any person to be convicted of a capital offence. Imprisonment for life, or rigorous imprisonment for 10 years and fine. Ditto Non-bailable Court of Session.  
…. If innocent person be thereby convicted and executed. Death or as above. Ditto Ditto Ditto.  
195. Giving or fabricating false evidence with intent to procure conviction of an offence punishable with imprisonment for life or with imprisonment for 7 years, or upwards. The same as for the offence. Ditto Bailable Ditto  
[195-A Threatening any person to give false evidence. Imprisonment for 7 years or fine or both. Cognisable Non-bailable Court by which offence of giving false evidence is triable.  
If innocent person is convicted and sentenced in consequence of false evidence with death or imprisonment for more than seven years. The same as for the offence. Ditto Ditto Ditto.]  
196. Using in a judicial proceeding evidence known to be false or fabricated. The same as for giving or fabricating false evidence. [Non-cognisable] According as offence of giving such evidence is bailable or non-bailable. Court by which offence of giving or fabricating false evidence is triable.  
197. Knowingly issuing or signing a false certificate relating to any fact of which such certificate is by law admissible in evidence. Ditto Ditto Bailable Court by which offence of giving false evidence is triable  
198. Using as a true certificate one known to be false in a material point. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto  
199. False statement made in any declaration which is by law receivable as evidence. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto  
200. Using as true any such declaration known to be false. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto  
201. Causing disappearance of evidence of an offence committed, or giving false information touching it to screen the offender, if a capital offence. Imprisonment for 7 years and fine. According as the offence in relation to which disappearance of evidence is caused is cognisable or non-cognisable. Ditto Court of Session.  
If punishable with imprisonment for life or imprisonment for 10 years. Imprisonment for 3 years and fine. Non-cognisable Ditto Magistrate of the first class.
If punishable with less than 10 years’ imprisonment. Imprisonment for a quarter of the longest term provided for the offence, or fine or both. Ditto Ditto Court by which offence is triable.
202. Intentional omission to give information of an offence by a person legally bound to inform. Imprisonment for 6 months or fine, or both. Ditto Ditto Any Magistrate
203. Giving false information respecting an offence committed. Imprisonment for 2 years, or fine, or both. Ditto Ditto Ditto
204. Secreting or destroying any document to prevent its production as evidence. Ditto Ditto Ditto Magistrate of the first class.
205. False personation for the purpose of any act or proceeding in a suit or criminal prosecution or for becoming bail or security. Imprisonment for 3 years, or fine, or both. Ditto Ditto
206. Fraudulent removal or concealment, etc., of property to prevent its seizure as a forfeiture, or in satisfaction of a fine under sentence or in execution of a decree. Imprisonment for 2 years, or fine, or both. Ditto Ditto Any Magistrate.
207. Claiming property without right, or practising deception touching any right to it, to prevent its being taken as a forfeiture, or in satisfaction of a fine under sentence, or in execution of a decree. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
208. Fraudulently suffering a decree to pass for a sum not due, or suffering decree to be executed after it has been satisfied. Ditto Ditto Ditto Magistrate of the first class.
209. False claim in a Court of Justice. Imprisonment for 2 years, and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
210. Fraudulently obtaining a decree for a sum not due, or causing a decree to be executed after it has been satisfied. Imprisonment for 2 years, or fine, or both. Ditto Ditto Ditto
211. False charge of offence made with intent to injure. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
If offence charged be punishable with imprisonment for 7 years or upwards. Imprisonment for 7 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
If offence charged be capital or punishable with imprisonment for life. Imprisonment for 7 years and fine . Non-cognisable Bailable Court of Session.
212. Harbouring an offender, if the offence be capital. Imprisonment for 5 years, and fine. Cognisable Ditto Magistrate of the first class.
If punishable with imprisonment for life or with imprisonment for 10 years. Imprisonment for 3 years, and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
…. If punishable with imprisonment for 1 year and not for 10 years. Imprisonment for a quarter of the longest term, and of the description, provided for the offence, or fine, or both. Ditto Ditto Ditto
213. Taking gift., etc., to screen an offender from punishment if the offence be capital. Imprisonment for 7 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
If punishable with imprisonment for life or with imprisonment for 10 years. Imprisonment for 3 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
If punishable with imprisonment for less than 10 years. Imprisonment for a quarter of the longest term, provided for the offence, or fine, or both. Ditto Ditto Ditto
214. Offering gift or restoration of property in consideration of screening offender if the offence be capital. Imprisonment for 7 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
.. If punishable with imprisonment for life or with imprisonment for 10 years. Imprisonment for 3 years and fine. Non-cognisable Ditto Ditto
.. If punishable with imprisonment for less than 10 years. Imprisonment for a quarter of the longest term provided for the offence, or fine, or both. Ditto Ditto Ditto
215. Taking gift to help to recover movable property of which a person has been deprived by an offence without causing apprehension of offender. Imprisonment for 2 years, or fine, or both. Cognisable Ditto Ditto
216. Harbouring an offender who has escaped from custody, or whose apprehension has been ordered, if the offence be capital. Imprisonment for 7 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
If punishable with imprisonment for life or with imprisonment for 10 years. Imprisonment for 3 years, with or without fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
If punishable with imprisonment for 1 year and not for 10 years. Imprisonment for a quarter of the longest term, provided for the offence, or fine or both. Ditto Ditto Ditto
216-A. Harbouring robbers or dacoits. Rigorous imprisonment for 7 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
217. Public servant disobeying a direction of law with intent to save person from punishment, or property from forfeiture. Imprisonment for 2 years, or fine, or both. Non-cognisable Bailable Any Magistrate
218. Public servant framing an incorrect record or writing with intent to save person from punishment, or property from forfeiture. Imprisonment for 3 years, or fine, or both. Cognisable Bailable Magistrate of the first class.
219. Public servant in a judicial proceeding corruptly making and pronouncing an order, report, verdict, or decision which he knows to be contrary to law. Imprisonment for 7 years or fine, or both. Non-cognisable Ditto Ditto
220. Commitment for trial or confinement by a person having authority, who knows that he is acting contrary to law. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
221. Intentional omission to apprehend on the part of a public servant bound by law to apprehend an offender, if the offence be capital. Imprisonment for 7 years with or without fine. According as the offence in relation to which such omission has been made is cognisable or non-cognisable. Ditto Ditto
If punishable with imprisonment for life or imprisonment for 10 years. Imprisonment for 3 years, with or without fine. Cognisable Ditto Ditto
If punishable with imprisonment for less than 10 years. Imprisonment for 2 years with or without fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
222. Intentional omission to apprehend on the part of a public servant bound by law to apprehend person under sentence of a Court of Justice if under sentence of death. Imprisonment for life, or imprisonment for 14 years, with or without fine. Ditto Non-bailable Court of Session.
.. If under sentence of imprisonment for life or imprisonment for 10 years, or upwards. Imprisonment for 7 years, with or without fine. Ditto Ditto Magistrate of the first class.
.. If under sentence of imprisonment for less that 10 years or lawfully committed to custody. Imprisonment for 3 years, or fine, or both. Ditto Bailable
223. Escape from confinement negligently suffered by a public servant. Simple imprisonment for 2 years, or fine, or both. Non-Cognisable Bailable Any Magistrate.
224. Resistance or obstruction by a person to his lawful apprehension. Imprisonment for 2 years or fine or both. Cognisable
225. Resistance or obstruction to the lawful apprehension of any person, or rescuing him from lawful custody. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
.. If charged with an offence punishable with imprisonment for life or imprisonment for 10 years. Imprisonment for 3 years and fine. Ditto Non-bailable Magistrate of the first class.
If charged with a capital offence. Imprisonment for 7 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
If the person is sentenced to imprisonment for life, or imprisonment for 10 years, or upwards. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
If under sentence of death. Imprisonment for life or imprisonment for 10 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Court of Session
225-A. Omission to apprehend, or sufference of escape on part of public servant, in cases not otherwise provided for :,        
.. (a) In case of intentional omission or sufferance. Imprisonment for 3 years, or fine, or both. Non-Cognisable Bailable Magistrate of the first class.
(b) In case of negligent omission or sufferance. Simple imprisonment for 2 years, or fine, or both. Ditto Ditto Any Magistrate.
225-B. Resistance or obstruction to lawful apprehension, or escape or rescue in cases not otherwise provided for. Imprisonment for 6 months or fine, or both. Cognisable Ditto Ditto
227. Violation of condition of remission of punishment. Punishment of original sentence, or if part of the punishment has been undergone, the residue. Ditto Non-bailable The Court by which the original offence was triable.
228. Intentional insult or interruption to a public servant sitting in any stage of a judicial proceeding. Simple imprisonment for 6 months, or fine of 1000 rupees, or both. Non-conizable Bailable The Court in which the offence is committed, subject to the provisions of Chapter XXVI.
                 

State Amendment – [Andhra Pradesh]. – In Andhra Pradesh the offence under section 228 is Cognisable – A.P.G.O. Ms. No. 732,, Dated 5-12-1991.

228-A. Disclosure of identity of the victim of certain offences, etc. Imprisonment for two years and fine. Cognisable Ditto Any Magistrate.
Printing or publication of a proceeding without prior permission of court. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto]
229. Personation of a juror or assessor. Imprisonment for 2 years, or fine, or both. Ditto Ditto Magistrate of the first class.
229-A Failure by person released on bail or bond to appear in Court. Imprisonment for 1 year or fine or both Cognisable Non-bailable Any Magistrate.

CHAPTER XII

OFFENCES RELATING TO COINS AND GOVERNMENT STAMPS

231. Counterfeiting or performing any part of the process of counterfeiting coin. Imprisonment for 7 years, and fine. Cognisable Non-bailable Magistrate of the first class.
232. Counterfeiting or performing any part of the process of counterfeiting Indian coin. Imprisonment for life, or imprisonment for 10 years, and fine. Ditto Ditto Court of Session.
233. Making, buying or selling instrument for the purpose of counterfeiting coin. Imprisonment for 3 years, and fine. Ditto Ditto Magistrate of the first class.
234. Making, buying, or selling instrument for the purposes of counterfeiting Indian coin. Imprisonment for 7 years, and fine. Ditto Ditto Court of Session.
235. Possession of instrument or materials for the purpose of using the same for counterfeiting coin. Imprisonment for 3 years, and fine Ditto Ditto Magistrate of the first class.
  If Indian coin. Imprisonment for 10 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Court of Session.
236. Abetting, in India, the counterfeiting, out of India, of coin. The punishment provided for abetting the counterfeiting of such coin within India. Ditto Ditto Magistrate of the first class.
237. Import or export of counterfeit coin, knowing the same to be counterfeit. Imprisonment for 3 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Magistrate of the first class.
238. Import or export of counterfeit of Indian coin, knowing the same to be counterfeit. Imprisonment for life, or imprisonment for 10 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Court of Session.
239. Having any counterfeit coin known to be such when it came into possession, and delivering, etc., the same to any person. Imprisonment for 5 years and fine. Cognisable Non-bailable Magistrate of the first class.
240. Same with respect to Indian coin. Imprisonment for 10 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Court of Session.
241. Knowingly delivering to another any counterfeit coin as genuine, which, when first possessed, the deliverer did not know to be counterfeit. Imprisonment for 2 years, or fine or 10 times the value of the coin counterfeited, or both. Ditto Ditto Any Magistrate.
242. Possession of counterfeit coin by a person who knew it to be counterfeit when he became possessed thereof. Imprisonment for 3 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Magistrate of the first class.
243. Possession of Indian coin by a person who knew it to be counterfeit when he became possessed thereof. Imprisonment for 7 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
244. Person employed in a Mint causing coin to be of a different weight or composition from that fixed by law. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
245. Unlawfully taking from a Mint any coining instrument. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
246. Fraudulently diminishing the weight or altering the composition of any coin. Imprisonment for 3 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
247. Fraudulently diminishing the weight or altering the composition of Indian coin. Imprisonment of 7 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
248. Altering appearance of any coin with intent that it shall pass as a coin of a different description. Imprisonment for 3 years and fine. Cognisable Non-bailable Magistrate of the first class
249. Altering appearance of Indian coin with intent that it shall pass as a coin of a different description. Imprisonment for 7 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
250. Delivery to another of coin possessed with the knowledge that it is altered. Imprisonment for 5 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
251. Delivery of Indian coin possessed with the knowledge that it is altered. Imprisonment for 10 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Court of Session.
252. Possession of altered coin by a person who knew it to be altered when he became possessed thereof. Imprisonment for 3 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Magistrate of the first class.
253. Possession of Indian coin by a person who knew it to be altered when he became possessed thereof. Imprisonment for 5 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
254. Delivery to another of coin as genuine which, when first possessed, the deliverer did not know to be altered. Imprisonment for 2 years and fine, or 10 times the value of the coin. Ditto Ditto Any Magistrate.
255. Counterfeiting a Government stamp. Imprisonment for life, or imprisonment for 10 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Court of Session.
256. Having possession of an instrument or material for the purpose of counterfeiting a Government stamp. Imprisonment for 7 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Magistrate of the first class.
257. Making, bying or selling instrument for the purpose of counterfeiting a Government stamp. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
258. Sale of counterfeit Goverment stamp. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
259. Having possession of a counterfeit Government stamp. Imprisonment for 7 years and fine Cognisable Bailable Magistrate of the first class.
260. Using as genuine a Government stamp known to be counterfeit. Imprisonment for 7 years and fine, or both. Ditto Ditto Ditto
261. Effacing any writing from a substance bearing a Government stamp, or removing from a document a stamp used for it, with intent to cause a loss to Government. Imprisonment for 3 years, or fine, or both. Non-Bailable Ditto Ditto
262. Using a Government stamp known to have been before used. Imprisonment for 2 years, or fine, or both. Ditto Ditto Any Magistrate.
263. Erasure of mark denoting that stamps have been used. Imprisonment for 3 years, or fine, or both. Ditto Ditto Magistrate of the first class.
263-A. Fictitious stamps. Fine of 200 rupees. Ditto Ditto Any Magistrate.

CHAPTER XIII

Offences Relating to Weights and Measures

264. Fraldulent use of false instrument for weighing. Imprisonment for 1 year, or fine, or both. Non-Cognisable Bailable Any Magistrate.
265. Fraudulent use of false weight or measure. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
266. Being in possession of the false weights or measures for fraudulent use. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
267. Making or selling false weights or measures for fraudulent use. Ditto Cognisable Non-bailable Ditto

CHAPTER XIV

Offences Affecting the Public Health, Safety, Convenience, Decency and Morals

269. Negligently doing any act known to be likely to spread infection of any disease dangerous to life. Imprisonment for 6 months, or fine, or both. Cognisable Bailable Any Magistrate
270. Malignantly doing any act known to be likely to spread infection of any disease dangerous to life. Imprisonment for 2 years, or fine, or both. Ditto Ditto Ditto
271. Knowingly disobeying any quarantine rule. Imprisonment for 6 months, or fine, or both. Non-Cognisable Ditto Ditto
272. Adulterating food or drink intended for sale, so as to make the same noxious. Imprisonment for 6 months, or fine of 1000 rupees, or both. Ditto Ditto Ditto
273. Selling any food or drink as food and drink, knowing the same to be noxious. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
274. Adulterating any drug or medical preparation intended for sale so as to lessen its efficacy or to change its operation, or to make it noxious Ditto Ditto [Non-bailable] Ditto
275. Offering for sale or issuing from a dispensary any drug or medial preparation known to have been adulterated. Ditto Ditto [Bailable]. Ditto
276. Knowingly selling or issuing from a dispensary any drung or medical preparation as a different drug or medical preparation. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto

STATE AMENDMENTS – [Orissa] – In its application to the State of Orissa, for the existing entries against sections 272 to 276 in the First Schedule, substitute the following entries, namely :-

272. Adulterating food or drink intended for sale, so as to make the same noxious. Imprisonment for life, with or without fine. Cognisable Non-bailable Court of Session
273. Selling any food or drink as food and drink, knowing the same to be noxious. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
274. Adulterating any drug or medical preparation intended for sale so as to lessen its efficacy, or to change its operation or to make it noxious. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto.
275. Offering for sale or issuing from a dispensary any drug or medical preparation known to have been adulterated. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
276. Knowingly selling or issuing from a dispensary any drug or medical preparation as a different drug or medical preparation. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto

[Uttar Pradesh].- In its application to the State of Uttar Pradesh, for the existing entries against sections 272 to 276 in the First Schedule, susbstitute the following entries, namely :-

272. Adulterating food or drink intended for sale, so as to make the same noxious. Imprisonment for life, with or without fine. Cognisable Non-bailable Court of Session
273. Selling any food or drink as food or drink knowing the same to be noxious. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
274. Adulterating any drug or medical preparation intended for sale so as to lessen its efficacy, or to change its operation, or to make it noxious. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
275. Offering for sale or issuing from a dispensary any drug or medical preparation known to have been adulterated. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
276. Knowingly selling or issuing from a dispensary any drug or medical preparation as a different drung or medical preparation.” – Uttar Pradesh Act 47 of 1975, section 5w.e.f. 15.9.1975). Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto

[West Bengal] – In its application to the State of West Bengal, for the existing entries against sections 272 to 276 in the First Schedule, substitute the following entries, namely :-

272. Adulterating food or drink intended for sale, so as to make the same noxious. Imprisonment for life, with or without fine. Cognisable Non-bailable Court of Session
273. Selling any food or drink as food or drink knowing the same to be noxious. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
274. Adulterating any drug or medical preparation intended for sale so as to lessen its efficacy, or to change its operation, or to make it noxious. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
275. Offering for sale or issuing from a dispensary any drug or medical preparation known to have been adulterated. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
276. Knowingly selling or issuing from a dispensary any drug or medical preparation as a different drung or medical preparation. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
277. Defiling the water of a public spring or reservoir. Imprisonment for 3 months, or fine of 500 rupees, or both. Ditto Bailable Any Magistrate.
278. Making atmosphere noxious to health. Fine of 500 rupees. Non-Cognisable Ditto Ditto
279. Driving or riding on a public way so rashly or negligently as to endanger human life, etc. Imprisonment for 6 months, or fine of 1000 rupees, or both Cognisable Ditto Ditto
280. Navigating any vessel so rashly or negligently as to endanger human life, etc. Imprisonment for 6 months, or fine of 1000 rupees, or both Cognisable Bailable Any Magistrate.
281. Exhibition of a false light, mark or buoy. Imprisonment for 7 years, or fine, or both. Ditto Ditto Magistrate of the first class.
282. Conveying for hire any person by water, in a vessel in such a state, or so loaded, as to endanger his life. Imprisonment for 6 months, or fine of 1000 rupees, or both. Ditto Ditto Any Magistrate
283. Causing danger, obstruction, or injury in any public way or line of navigation. Fine of 200 rupees. Ditto Ditto Ditto
284. Dealing with any poisonous substance so as to endanger human life etc. Imprisonment for 6 months, or fine of 1000 rupees, or both. Ditto Ditto Ditto
285. Dealing with fire or any combustible matter so as to endanger human life, etc. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
286. So dealing with any explosive substance. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
287. So dealing with any machinery. Ditto Non-Cognisable Ditto Ditto
288. A person omitting to guard against probable danger to human life by the fall of any building over which he has a right entitling him to pull it down or repair it. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
289. A person omitting to take order with any animal in his possession, so as to guard against danger to human life, or of grievous hurt from such animal. Ditto Cognisable Ditto Ditto
290. Committing a public nuisance. Fine of 200 rupees. Non-Cognisable Ditto Ditto .
291. Continuance of nuisance after injunction to discontinue. Simple imprisonment for 6 months, or fine, or both. Cognisable Ditto Ditto
292. Sale, etc., of obscene books, etc. On first conviction, with imprisonment for 2 years, and with fine of 2000 rupees, and in the event of second or subsequent conviction, with imprisonment for 5 years and with fine of 5000 rupees. Ditto Ditto Ditto
293 Sale etc. of obscene objects to young persons. On first conviction, with imprisonment for 3 years and with fine of 2000 rupees and in the event of second or subsequent conviction, with imprisonment for seven years and with fine of 5000 rupees. Ditto Ditto Ditto

State Amendment – [Tamil Nadu] – In its application to the State of Tamil Nadu, in the First Schedule, for the entries relating to sections 292-A and 293, substitute the following entries, namely :-

292-A. Printing etc., of grossly indecent or scurrilous matter or matter intended for blackmail. Imprisonment of either description for two years or fine, or both, Non-Cognisable Bailable Any Magistrate.
293. Sale etc. of obscene objects to young persons. On first conviction, with imprisonment for 3 years and with fine of 2000 rupees and in the event of second or subsequent conviction, with imprisonment for 7 years and with fine of 5000 rupees.” – Tamil Nadu Act 30 of 1984, section 3 (w.e.f. 2.7.1984). Ditto Ditto Ditto
294. Obscene songs Imprisonment for 3 months, or fine, or both. Cognisable Bailable Any Magistrate
294-A. Keeping a lottery office. Imprisonment for 6 months, or fine, or both. Non-Cognisable Ditto Ditto
.. Publishing proposals relating to lotteries. Fine of 1000 rupees. Ditto Ditto Ditto

CHAPTER XV

Offences Relating to Religion

295. Destroying, damaging or defiling a place of worship or sacred object with intent to insult the religion of any class of persons. Imprisonment for 2 years, or fine, or both. Cognisable Non-bailable Any Magistrate.
295-A. Maliciously insulting the religion or the religious beliefs of any class. Imprisonment for 3 years, or fine, or both. Ditto Ditto Magistrate of the first class.
296. Causing a disturbance to an assembly engaged in religious worship. Imprisonment for 1 year, or fine, or both. Ditto Bailable Any Magistrate.
297. Trespassing in place of worship or sepulchre, disturbing funeral with intention to wound the feelings or to insult the religion of any person, or offering indignity to a human corpse. Ditto. Ditto Non-bailable Ditto
298. Uttering any word or making any sound in the hearing or making any gesture, or placing any object in the sight of any person, with intention to wound his religious feelings. Ditto Non-Cognisable Ditto Ditto

ANDHRA PRADESH :- In the State of Andhra Pradesh the Offence is Cognisable. – A.P.G.O.Ms No. 732 dated 15.12.1991.

CHAPTER XVI

Offences Affecting the Human Body

302. Murder. Death, or imprisonment for life and fine. Cognisable Non-bailable Court of Session.
303. Murder by person under sentence of imprisonment for life. Death. Ditto Ditto Ditto
304. Culpable homicide not amounting to murder, if act by which the death is caused is done with intention of causing death, etc. Imprisonment for life, or imprisonmenr for 10 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
  If act is done with knowledge that it is likely to cause death, but without any intention to cause death, etc. Imprisonment for 10 years, or fine, or both. Ditto Ditto Ditto
304-A. Causing death by rash or negligent act. Imprisonment for 2 years, or fine, or both. Ditto Bailable Magistrate of the first class.
304-B. Dowry death Imprisonment of not less than seven years but which may extend to imprisonment for life. Ditto Non-bailable Court of Session.
305. Abetment of suicide committed by child, or insane or delirious person or an idiot, or a person intoxicated. Death or imprisonment for life, or imprisonment for 10 years and fine. Ditto Non-bailable Court of Session.
306. Abetting the commission of suicide. Imprisonment for 10 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
307. Attempt to murder. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
  If such act causes hurt to any person. Imprisonment for life, or imprisonment for 10 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
  Attempt by life,convict to murder, if hurt is caused. Death or imprisonment for 10 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
308. Attempt to commit culpable homicide. Imprisonment for 3 years, or fine, or both. Ditto Ditto Ditto
  If such act causes hurt to any person. Imprisonment for 7 years, or fine, or both. Ditto Ditto Ditto
309. Attempt to commit suicide. Simple imprisonment for 1 year, or fine, or both. Ditto Bailable Any Magistrate.
311. Being a thug. Imprisonment for life and fine. Ditto Non-bailable Court of Session.
312. Causing miscarriage. Imprisonment for 3 years, or fine, or both. Non-Cognisable Bailable Magistrate of the first class.
  If the woman be quick with child Imprisonment for 7 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
313. Causing miscarriage without woman’s consent. Imprisonment for life, or imprisonment for 10 years and fine. Cognisable Non-bailable Court of Session.
314. Death caused by an act done with intent to cause miscarriage. Imprisonment for 10 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
  If act done without woman’s consent. Imprisonment for life, or as above. Ditto Ditto Ditto
315. Act done with intent to prevent a child being born alive, or to cause it to die after its birth. Imprisonment for 10 years, or fine, or both. Ditto Ditto Ditto
316. Causing death of a quick unborn child by an act amounting to culpable homicide. Imprisonment for 10 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
317. Exposure of a child under 12 years of age by parent or person having care of it with intention of wholly abandoning it. Imprisonment for 7 years, or fine, or both Ditto Bailable Magistrate of the first class.
318. Concealment of birth by secret disposal of dead body. Imprisonment for 2 years, or fine, or both. Ditto Ditto Ditto

STATE AMENDMENT – [Madhya Pradesh]– In its application to the State of Madhya Pradesh, in the entries relating to Sections 317 and 318, in column 6, for the words “Magistrate of the First Class”, substitute “Court of Session” – Madhya Pradesh Act 2 of 2008, Section 4.

323. Voluntarily causing hurt. Imprisonment for 1 year, or fine of 1000 rupees, or both Non-Cognisable Ditto Any Magistrate
324. Voluntarily causing hurt by dangerous weapons or means. Imprisonment for 3 years, or fine, or both. Cognisable [Non-bailable]. Ditto
325. Voluntarily causing grievous hurt. Imprisonment for 7 years and fine. Ditto [Bailable] Ditto
326. Voluntarily causing grievous hurt by dangerous weapons or means. Imprisonment for life, or imprisonment for 10 years and fine. Cognisable. Non-bailable Magistrate of the first class.
[326A Voluntarily causing grievous hurt by use of acid, etc. Imprisonment for not less than 10 years but which may extend to imprisonment for life and fine to be paid to the victim. Cognisable Non-bailable Court of Session
326B Voluntarily throwing or attempting to throw acid. Imprisonment for 5 years but which may extend to 7 years and with fine. Cognisable Non-bailable Court of Session]

STATE AMENDMENT – Madhya Pradesh – In its application to the State of Madhya Pradesh, in the entries relating to Section 326, in column 6, for the words “Magistrate of the First Class”, substitute “Court of Session” – Madhya Pradesh Act 2 of 2008, Section 4.

327. Voluntarily causing hurt to extort property or a valuable security, or to constrain to do anything which is illegal or which may facilitate the commission of an offence. Imprisonment for 10 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
328. Administering stupefying drug with intent to cause hurt, etc. Ditto Ditto Ditto Court of Session.
329. Voluntarily causing grievous hurt to extort property or a valuable security, or to constrain to do anything which is illegal, or which may facilitate the commission of an offence. Imprisonment for life, or imprisonment for 10 years and fine Ditto Ditto Ditto
330. Voluntarily causing hurt to extort confession or information, or to compel restoration of property, etc. Imprisonment for 7 years and fine. Ditto Bailable Magistrate of the fist class.
331. Voluntarily causing grievous hurt to extort confession or information or to compel restoration of property, etc. Imprisonment for 10 years and fine. Ditto Non-bailable Court of Session
332. Voluntarily causing hurt to deter public servant from his duty. Imprisonment for 3 years , or fine, or both. Ditto [Ditto]. Magistrate of the first class.
333. Voluntarily causing grievous hurt to deter public servant from his duty. Imprisonment for 10 years and fine. Ditto [Ditto]. Court of Session.
334. Voluntarily causing hurt on grave and sudden provocation, not intending to hurt any other than the person who gave the provocation. Imprisonment for 1 month, or fine of 500 rupees or both. Non-Cognisable Bailable Any Magistrate
335. Causing grievous hurt on grave and sudden provocation, not intending to hurt any other than the person who gave the provocation. Imprisonment for 4 years, or fine of 2000 rupees, or both. Cognisable Bailable Magistrate of the first class.
336. Doing any act which endangers human life or the personal safety of others. Imprisonment for 3 months, or fine of 250 rupees, or both. Ditto Ditto Any Magistrate.
337. Causing hurt by an act which endangers human life, etc. Imprisonment for 6 months, or fine of 500 rupees, or both. Ditto Ditto Ditto
338. Causing grievous hurt by an act which endangers human life, etc. Imprisonment for 2 years, or fine of 1000 rupees, or both. Ditto Ditto Ditto
341. Wrongfully restraining any person. Simple imprisonment for 1 month or fine of 500 rupees or both Ditto Ditto Ditto
342. Wrongfully confining any person. Imprisonment for 1 year, or fine of 1000 rupees, or both Ditto Ditto Ditto
343. Wrongfully confining for three or more days. Imprisonment for 2 years, or fine, or both. Ditto Ditto Ditto
344. Wrongfully confining for 10 or more days. Imprisonment for 3 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
345. Keeping any person in wrongful confinement, knowing that a writ has been issued for his liberation. Imprisonment for 2 years, in addition to imprisonment under any other section Cognisable Bailable Magistrate of the first class.
346. Wrongful confinement in secret. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
347. Wrongful confinement for the purpose of extorting property, or constraining to an illegal act, etc. Imprisonment for 3 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Any Magistrate.
348. Wrongful confinement for the purpose of extorting confession or information, or of compelling restoration of property, etc. Imprisonment for 3 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
352. Assault or use of criminal force otherwise than on grave provocation. Imprisonment for 3 months, or fine of 500 rupees, or both. Non-Cognisable Ditto Ditto
353. Assault or use of criminal force to deter a public servant from discharge of his duty. Imprisonment for 2 years, or fine, or both. Cognisable [Non-bailable] Ditto
[354 Assault or use of criminal force to woman with intent to outrage her modesty. Imprisonment of 1 year which may extend to 5 years, and with fine. Cognisable Non-bailable Any Magistrate
354A Sexual harassment of the nature of unwelcome physical contact and advances or a demand or request for sexual favours showing pornography. Imprisonment which may extend to 3 years or with fine or with both. Cognisable Bailable Any Magistrate
  Sexual harassment of the nature of making sexually coloured remark Imprisonment which may extend to 1 year or with fine or with both Cognisable Bailable Any Magistrate
354B Assault or use of criminal force to woman with intent to disrobe. Imprisonment of not less than 3 years but which may extend to 7 years and with fine. Cognisable Non-bailable Any Magistrate
354C Voyeurism Imprisonment of not less than 1 year but which may extend to 3 years and with fine for first conviction Cognisable Bailable Any Magistrate
    Imprisonment of not less than 3 year but which may extend to 7 years and with fine for second or subsequent conviction Cognisable Non-Bailable Any Magistrate
354D Stalking Imprisonment up to 3 years and with fine for first conviction Cognisable Bailable Any Magistrate
    Imprisonment up to 5 years and with fine for second or subsequent conviction Cognisable Non-bailable Any Magistrate]
355. Assault or criminal force with intent to dishonour a person, otherwise than on grave and sudden provocation. Ditto Non-Cognisable Ditto Ditto

STATE AMENDMENT – [ANDHRA PRADESH] – In the application to the State of Andhra Pradesh for the existing entries against sections 354 and 355, substitute the following entries, namely :-

“354. Assault or use of criminal force to a woman with intent to outrage her modesty. Imprisonment for 7 years, and fine, Cognisable Cognisable Non-bailable Court of Session.
355. Assault or criminal force with intent to dishonour a person, otherwise than on grave and sudden provocation”.-Andhra Pradesh Act 3 of 1992, Section 2 (w.e.f. 15.2.1992). Imprisonment for 2 years, or fine, or both. Non-Cognisable Bailable Any Magistrate.

[Madhya Pradesh] – In its application to the State of Madhya Pradesh, after the entries relating to Section 354, insert the following entries, namely :-

“354-A. Assault or use of Criminal force to woman with intend to disrobe her. Imprisonment of not less than one year but which may extend to ten years and fine.”- Madhya Pradesh, Act 15 of 2004, section 5. Cognisable Non-bailable Court of Session

[ORISSA]:- In its application to the State of Orissa, in the entries relating to section 354, column 5 for the word “Bailable”, substitute “Non-bailable”. – Orissa Act 6 of 1995, Section 2, w.e.f. 10.3.1994.)

356. Assault or criminal force in attempt to commit theft of property worn or carried by a person. Ditto Cognisable Ditto Ditto
357. Assault or use of criminal force in attempt wrongfully to confine a person. Imprisonment for 1 year, or fine of 1000 rupees or both. Ditto Ditto Ditto
358. Assault or use of criminal force on grave and sudden provocation. Simple imprisonment for one month, or fine of 200 rupees, or both. Non-Cognisable Ditto Ditto
363. Kidnapping. Imprisonment for 7 years and fine. Cognisable Ditto Magistrate of the first class.
363-A. Kidnapping or obtaining the custody of a minor in order that such minor may be employed or used for purpose of begging. Imprisonment for 10 years and fine. Ditto Non-bailable Ditto
  Maiming a minor in order that such minor may be employed or used for purposes of begging. Imprisonment for life, and fine. Cognisable Non-bailable Court of Session

State Amendment – [Madhya Pradesh]– In its application to the State of Madhya Pradesh, in the entries relating to sections 363 and 363-A, in column 6, for the words “Magistrate of the first class “, substitute “Court of Session” – Madhya Pradesh Act 2 of 2008, section 4.

[Uttar Pradesh] – In its application to the State of Uttar Pradesh, in the First Schedule, in the entries relating to section 363, in column 5, for the words, “Bailable”, substitute “Non-bailable” – Uttar Pradesh Act 1 of 1984, section 12 (w.e.f. 1.5.1984)

364. Kidnapping or abducting in order to murder. Imprisonment for life, or rigorous imprisonment for 10 years, and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
364-A. Kidnapping for ransom etc. Death or imprisonment for life and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto.
365. Kidnapping or abducting with intent secretly and wrongfully to confine a person. Imprisonment for 7 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Magistrate of the first class.

State Amendment – [Madhya Pradesh]– In its application to the State of Madhya Pradesh, in the entries relating to sections 365 , in column 6, for the words “Magistrate of the first class “, substitute “Court of Session” – Madhya Pradesh Act 2 of 2008, section 4.

[ 366. Kidnapping to abducting a woman to compel her marriage or to cause her defilement, etc. Imprisonment for 10 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Court of Session.
366-A. Procuration of minor girl. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
366-B. Importation of girl from foreign country. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
367. Kidnapping or abducting in order to subject a person to grievous hurt, slavery, etc. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
368. Concealing or keeping in confinement a kidnapped person. Punishment for kidnapping or abduction. Ditto Ditto Court by which the kidnapping or abduction is triable.
369. Kidnapping or abducting a child with intent to take property from the person of such child. Imprisonment for 7 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Magistrate of the first class.
[370 Trafficking of person Imprisonment of not less than 7 years but which may extend to 10 years and with fine Cognisable Non-bailable Court of Session
  Trafficking of more than one person. Imprisonment of not less than 10 years but which may extend to imprisonment for life and with fine. Cognisable Non-bailable Court of Session
  Trafficking of a minor Imprisonment of not less than 10 years but which may extend to imprisonment for life and with fine. Cognisable Non-bailable Court of Session
  Trafficking of more than one minor Imprisonment of not less than 14 years but which may extend to imprisonment for life and with fine. Cognisable Non-bailable Court of Session
  Person convicted of offence of trafficking of minor on more than one occasion. Imprisonment for life which shall mean the remainder of that person’s natural life and with fine. Cognisable Non-bailable Court of Session
  Public servant or a police officer involved in trafficking of minor Imprisonment for life which shall mean the remainder of that person’s natural life and with fine. Cognisable Non-bailable Court of Session
370A Exploitation of trafficked child Imprisonment of not less than 5 years but which may extend to 7 years and with fine. Cognisable Non-bailable Court of Session
  Exploitation of a trafficked person Imprisonment of not less than 3 years but which may extend to 5 years and with fine. Cognisable Non-bailable Court of Session]
371. Habitual dealing in slaves. Imprisonment for life, or imprisonment for 10 years and fine. Cognisable Non-bailable Court of Session.
372. Selling or letting to hire a minor for purposes of prostitution, etc. Imprisonment for 10 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
373. Buying or obtaining possession of a minor for the same purposes. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
374. Unlawful compulsory labour. Imprisonment for 1 year, or fine or both. Ditto Bailable Any Magistrate.
[376 Rape [Rigorous imprisonment of not less than 10 years but which may extend to imprisonment for life and with fine.] Cognizable Non-bailable Court of Session
  [Rape by a police officer or a public servant or member of armed forces or a person being on the management or on the staff of a jail, remand home or other place of custody or women’s or children’s institution or by a person on the management or on the staff of a hospital, and rape committed by a person in a position of trust or authority towards the person raped or by a near relative of the person raped. Rigorous imprisonment of not less than 10 years but which may extend to imprisonment for life which shall mean the remainder of that person’s natural life and with fine. Cognizable Non-bailable Court of Session]
  Persons committing offence of rape on a woman under sixteen years of age. Rigorous imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than 20 years but which may extend to imprisonment for life, which shall mean imprisonment for the remainder of that person’s natural life and with fine. Cognizable Non-bailable Court of Session]
376A Person committing an offence of rape and inflicting injury which causes death or causes the woman to be in a persistent vegetative state. Rigorous imprisonment of not less than 20 years but which may extend to imprisonment for life which shall mean imprisonment for the remainder of that person’s natural life or with death. Cognizable Non-bailable Court of Session
[376AB Person Committing an offence of rape on a woman under twelve years of age. Rigorous imprisonment of not less than 20 years but which may extend to imprisonment for life which shall mean imprisonment for the remainder of that person’s natural life and with fine or with death. Cognizable Non-bailable Court of Session]
376B Sexual intercourse by husband upon his wife during separation Imprisonment for not less than 2 years but which may extend to 7 years and with fine. Cognizable (but only on the complaint of the victim) Bailable Court of Session
376C Sexual intercourse by a person in authority. Rigorous imprisonment for not less than 5 years but which may extend to 10 years and with fine. Cognizable Non-bailable Court of Session
376D Gang rape Rigorous imprisonment for not less than 20 years but which may extend to imprisonment for life which shall mean imprisonment for the remainder of that person’s life and with fine to be paid to the victim Cognizable Non-bailable Court of Session
[376DA Gang rape on a woman under sixteen years of age. Imprisonment for life which shall mean imprisonment for the remainder of that person’s natural life and with fine. Cognizable Non-bailable Court of Session]
[376DB Gang rape on woman under twelve years of age. Imprisonment for life which shall mean imprisonment for the remainder of the at person’s natural life and with fine or with death. Cognizable Non-bailable Court of Session]
376E Repeat offenders Imprisonment for life which shall mean imprisonment for the remainder of that person’s natural life or with death. Cognizable Non-bailable Court of Session.]
377. Unnatural offences. Imprisonment for life or imprisonment for 10 years and fine. Cognizable Non-bailable Magistrate of the first class. <p

State Amendment – [Madhya Pradesh]– In its application to the State of Madhya Pradesh, in the entries relating to sections 377 , in column 6, for the words “Magistrate of the first class “, substitute “Court of Session” – Madhya Pradesh Act 2 of 2008, section 4.

CHAPTER XVII

Offences against property

379. Theft. Imprisonment for 3 years, or fine, or both. Cognizable Non-bailable Any Magistrate.
380. Theft in building, tent or vessel. Imprisonment for 7 years and fine Ditto Ditto Ditto
381. Theft by clerk or servant of property in possession of master or employer. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
382. Theft after preparation having been made for causing death, or hurt, or restraint or fear of death, or of hurt or of restraint, in order to the committing of such theft, or to retiring after committing it, or to retaining property taken by it. Rigorous imprisonment for 10 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Magistrate of the first class.
384. Extortion. Imprisonment for 3 years, or fine or both. Ditto Ditto Any Magistrate.
385. Putting or attempting to put in fear of injury, in order to commit extortion. Imprisonment for 2 years, or fine, or both. Ditto Bailable Ditto
386. Extortion by putting a person in fear of death or grievous hurt. Imprisonment for 10 years and fine. Ditto Non-bailable Magistrate of the first class.
387. Putting or attempting to put a person in fear of death or grievous hurt in order to commit extortion. Imprisonment for 7 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
388. Extortion by threat of accusation of an offence punishable with death, imprisonment for life, or imprisonment for 10 years. Imprisonment for 10 years and fine. Ditto Bailable Ditto
  If the offence threatened be an unnatural offence. Imprisonment for life. Ditto Ditto Ditto
389. Putting a person in fear of accusation of an offence punishable with death, imprisonment for life, or imprisonment for 10 years in order to commit extortion. Imprisonment for 10 years, and fine Ditto Ditto Ditto
  If the offence be an unnatural offence. Imprisonment for life. Ditto Ditto Ditto
392. Robbery. Rigorous imprisonment for 10 years, and fine. Ditto Non-bailable Ditto
  If committed on the highway between sunset and sunrise. Rigorous imprisonment for 14 years, and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
393. Attempt to commit robbery. Rigorous imprisonment for 7 years, and fine. Cognizable Non-bailable Magistrate of the first class
394. Person voluntarily causing hurt in committing or attempting to commit robbery, or any other person jointly concerned in such robbery. Imprisonment for life, or rigorous imprisonment for 10 years, and fine Ditto Ditto Ditto

State Amendment – [Madhya Pradesh]– In its application to the State of Madhya Pradesh, in the entries relating to sections 392, 393 and 394, in column 6, for the words “Magistrate of the first class “, substitute “Court of Session” – Madhya Pradesh Act 2 of 2008, section 4.

395. Dacoity. Ditto Ditto Ditto Court of Session.
396. Murder in dacoity. Death, imprisonment for life, or rigorous imprisonment for 10 years, and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
397. Robbery or dacoity, with attempt to cause death or grievous hurt. Rigorous imprisonment for not less than 7 years. Ditto Ditto Ditto
398. Attempt to commit robbery or dacoity when armed with deadly weapon. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
399. Making preparation to commit dacoity. Rigorous imprisonment for 10 years, and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
400. Belonging to a gang of persons associated for the purpose of habitually committing dacoity. Imprisonment for life or rigorous imprisonment for 10 years, and fine Ditto Ditto Ditto
401. Belonging to a wandering gang of persons associated for the purpose of committing theft. Rigorous imprisonment for 7 years, and fine. Ditto Ditto Magistrate of the first class.
402. Being one of five or more persons assembled for the purpose of committing dacoity. Ditto Ditto Ditto Court of Session.
403. Dishonest misappropriation of movable property, or converting it to one’s own use. Imprisonment for 2 years, or fine, or both. Non-Cognizable Bailable Any Magistrate.
404. Dishonest misappropriation of property, knowing that it was in possession of a deceased person at his death, and that it has not since been in the possession of any person legally entitled to it. Imprisonment for 3 years, and fine. Ditto Ditto Magistrate of the first class.
405. If by clerk or person employed by deceased. Imprisonment for 7 years, and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
406. Criminal breach of trust. Imprisonment for 3 years, or fine, or both. Cognizable Non-bailable Ditto
407. Criminal breach of trust by a carrier, wharfinger, etc. Imprisonment for 7 years, and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
408. Criminal breach of trust by a clerk or servant. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
409. Criminal breach of trust by public servant or by banker, merchant or agent, etc. Imprisonment for life, or imprisonment for 10 years, and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto

State Amendment – [Madhya Pradesh]– In its application to the State of Madhya Pradesh, in the entries relating to sections 409 , in column 6, for the words “Magistrate of the first class “, substitute “Court of Session” – Madhya Pradesh Act 2 of 2008, section 4.

411. Dishonestly receiving stolen property knowing it to be stolen. Imprisonment for 3 years, or fine, or both. Ditto Ditto Any Magistrate.
412. Dishonestly receiving stolen property knowing that it was obtained by dacoity. Imprisonment for life or rigorous imprisonment for 10 years, and fine. Ditto Ditto Court of Session
413. Habitually dealing in stolen property. Imprisonment for life, or imprisonment for 10 years, and fine. Cognizable Non-bailable Court of Session
414. Assisting in concealment or disposal of stolen property knowing it to be stolen. Imprisonment for 3 years, or fine, or both. Ditto Ditto Any Magistrate.
417. Cheating. Imprisonment for 1 year, or fine, or both. Non-Cognisable Bailable Ditto
418. Cheating a person whose interest the offender was bound, either by law or by legal contract, to protect. Imprisonment for 3 years, or fine, or both. Ditto Ditto Ditto
419. Cheating by personation Ditto Cognisable Ditto Ditto
420. Cheating and thereby dishonestly inducing delivery of property, or the making, alteration or destruction of a valuable security. Imprisonment for 7 years, and fine. Ditto Non-bailable Magistrate of first class.
421. Fraudulent removal or concealment of property, etc., to prevent distribution among creditors. Imprisonment for 2 years, or fine, or both. Non-Cognisable Bailable Any Magistrate.
422. Fraudulently preventing from being made available for his creditors a debt or demand due to the offender. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
423. Fraudulent execution of deed of transfer containing a false statement of consideration. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
424. Fraudulent removal or concealment of property, of himself or any other person or assisting in the doing thereof, or dishonestly releasing any demand or claim to which he is entitled Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
426. Mischief. Imprisonment for 3 months, or fine, or both. Ditto Ditto Ditto
427. Mischief, and thereby causing damage to the amount of 50 rupees or upwards. Imprisonment for 2 years, or fine or both. Ditto Ditto Ditto
428. Mischief by killing, poisoning, maiming or rendering useless any animal of the value of 10 rupees or upwards. Ditto Cognisable Ditto Ditto
429. Mischief by killing, poisoning, maiming or rendering useless any elephant camel horse etc., whatever may be its value, or any other animal of the value of 50 rupees or upwards. Imprisonment for 5 years, or fine, or both. Ditto Ditto Magistrate of the first class
430. Mischief by causing diminution of supply of water for agricultural purposes, etc. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
431. Mischief by injury to public road, bridge, navigable river or navigable channel & rendering it impassable or less safe for travelling or conveying property. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
432. Mischief by causing inundation or obstruction to public drainage attended with damage. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
433. Mischief by destroying or moving or rendering less useful a light,house or sea,mark, or by exhibiting false lights. Imprisonment for 7 years, or fine, or both. Cognisable Bailable Magistrate of the first class.
434. Mischief by destroying for moving, etc., a landmark fixed by public authority. Imprisonment for one year, or fine or both. Non-Cognisable Bailable Any Magistrate.
435. Mischief by fire or explosive substance with intent to cause damage to an amount of 100 rupees or upwards, or in case of agricultural produce, 10 rupees or upwards. Imprisonment for 7 years and fine. Cognisable Ditto Magistrate of the first class.

State Amendment – [Madhya Pradesh]– In its application to the State of Madhya Pradesh, in the entries relating to sections 435 , in column 6, for the words “Magistrate of the first class “, substitute “Court of Session” – Madhya Pradesh Act 2 of 2008, section 4.

436. Mischief by fire or explosive substance with intent to destroy a house, etc. Imprisonment for life, or imprisonment for 10 years, and fine Ditto Non-bailable Court of Session.
437. Mischief with intent to destroy or make unsafe a decked vessel or a vessel of 20 tonnes burden. Imprisonment for 10 years, and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
438. The mischief described in the last section when committed by fire or any explosive substance. Imprisonment for life, or imprisonment for 10 years, and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
439. Running vessel ashore with intent to commit theft, etc. Imprisonment for 10 years, and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
440. Mischief committed after preparation made for causing death, or hurt, etc. Imprisonment for 5 years, and fine. Ditto Bailable Magistrate of the first class.
447. Criminal trespass. Imprisonment for 3 months, or fine of 500 rupees, or both. Ditto Ditto Any Magistrate.
448. House,trespass. Imprisonment for one year, or fine of 1000 rupees, or both. Ditto Ditto Ditto
449. House-trespass in order to the commission of an offence punishable with death. Imprisonment for life, or rigorous imprisonment for 10 years, and fine. Ditto Non-bailable Court of Session.
450. House-trespass in order to the commission of an offence punishable with imprisonment for life. Imprisonment for 10 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
451. House-trespass in order to the commission of an offence punishable with imprisonment. Imprisonment for 2 years and fine. Ditto Bailable Any Magistrate.
  If the offence is theft. Imprisonment for 7 years and fine. Ditto Non-bailable Ditto
452. House-trespass-having made preparation for causing hurt, assault, etc. Imprisonment for 7 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
453. Lurking house-trespass or house-breaking. Imprisonment for 2 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
454. Lurking house-trespass or house-breaking in order to the commission of an offence punishable with imprisonment. Imprisonment for 3 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
  If the offence be theft. Imprisonment for 10 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Magistrate of the first class.
455. Lurking house-trespass or house-breaking after preparation made for causing hurt, assault, etc. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
456. Lurking house-trespass or house-breaking by night. Imprisonment for 3 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Any Magistrate.
457. Lurking house-trespass or house-breaking by night in order to the commission of an offence punishable with imprisonment. Imprisonment for 5 years and fine. Cognisable Non-bailable Magistrate of the first class.
  If the offence is theft. Imprisonment for 14 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
458. Lurking house-trespass or house-breaking by night, after preparation made for causing hurt, etc. Imprisonment for 14 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
459. Grievous hurt caused whilst committing lurking house-trespass or house-breaking. Imprisonment for life or imprisonment for 10 years and fine. Ditto Ditto Court of Session.
460. Death or grievous hurt caused by one of several persons jointly concerned in house-breaking by night, etc. Imprisonment for life, or imprisonment for 10 years, and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
461. Dishonestly breaking open or unfastening any closed receptacle containing or supposed to contain property. Imprisonment for 2 years, and fine, or both. Ditto Ditto Any Magistrate.
462. Being entrusted with any closed receptacle containing or supposed to contain any property and fraudulently opening the same. Imprisonment for 3 years, or fine, or both. Ditto Bailable Ditto

CHAPTER XVIII

Offences relating to documents and to property marks

465. Forgery. Imprisonment for 2 years, or fine, or both. Non-Cognisable Bailable Magistrate of the first class.
466. Forgery of a record of a Court of Justice or of a Registrar of Births, etc., kept by a public servant. Imprisonment for 7 years and fine. Ditto Non-bailable Ditto
467. Forgery of a valuable security will, or authority to make or transfer any valuable security, or to receive any money, etc. Imprisonment for life, or imprisonment for 10 years, and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
  When the valuable security is a promissory note of the Central Government. Ditto Cognisable Ditto Ditto
468. Forgery for the purpose of cheating. Imprisonment for 7 years, and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto

State Amendment – [Madhya Pradesh] – In its application to the State of Madhya Pradesh, in the entries relating to sections 466, 467 and 468 , in column 6, for the words “Magistrate of the first class “, substitute “Court of Session” – Madhya Pradesh Act 2 of 2008, section 4.

469. Forgery for the purpose of harming the reputation of any person or knowing that it is likely to be used for that purpose. Imprisonment for 3 years, and fine Ditto Bailable Ditto
471. Using as genuine a forged document which is known to be forged. Punishment for forgery of such document. Cognisable Bailable Magistrate of the first class
  When the forged document is a promissory note of the Central Government. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
472. Making or counterfeiting a seal, plate, etc., with intent to commit a forgery punishable under section 467 of the Indian Penal Code, or possessing with like intent any such seal, plate, etc., knowing the same to be counterfeit. Imprisonment for life, or imprisonment for 7 years, and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
473. Making or counterfeiting a seal, plate, etc., with intent to commit a forgery punishable otherwise than under section 467 of the Indian Penal Code, or possessing with like intent any such seal, plate etc., knowing the same to be counterfeit. Imprisonment for 7 years, and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
474. Having possession of a document, knowing it to be forged, with intent to use it as genuine; if the document is one of the description mentioned in section 466 of the Indian Penal Code. Imprisonment for 7 years, and fine. Cognisable Bailable Magistrate of the first class.
  If the document is one of the description mentioned in section 467 of the Indian Penal Code. Imprisonment for life, or imprisonment for 7 years, and fine. Non-Cognisable Ditto Ditto
475. Counterfeiting a device or mark used for authenticating documents described in section 467 of the Indian Penal Code, or possessing counterfeit marked material. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
476. Counterfeiting a device or mark used for authenticating documents other than those described in section 467 of the Indian Penal Code, or possessing counterfeit marked material. Imprisonment for 7 years and fine. Ditto Non-bailable Ditto
477. Fraudulently destroying or defacing, or attempting to destroy or deface, or secreting, a will, etc. Imprisonment for life, or imprisonment for 7 years, and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
477-A. Falsification of accounts. Imprisonment for 7 years, or fine, or both. Ditto Bailable Ditto

State Amendment – [Madhya Pradesh]– In its application to the State of Madhya Pradesh, in the entries relating to sections 471, 472, 473, 474, 475, 476, 477 and 477-A, , in column 6, for the words “Magistrate of the first class “, substitute “Court of Session” – Madhya Pradesh Act 2 of 2008, section 4.

482. Using a false property mark with intent to deceive or injure any person. Imprisonment for 1 year, or fine, or both Ditto Ditto Any Magistrate.
483. Counterfeiting a property mark used by another, with intent to cause damage or injury. Imprisonment for 2 years, or fine, or both. Ditto Ditto Ditto
484. Counterfeiting a property mark used by a public servant, or any mark used by him to denote the manufacture, quality, etc., of any property. Imprisonment for 3 years, and fine. Ditto Bailable Magistrate of the first class.
485. Fraudulently making or having possession of any die, plate or other instrument for counterfeiting any public or private property mark. Imprisonment for 3 years, or fine, or both. Ditto Ditto Ditto
486. Knowingly selling goods marked with a counterfeit property mark. Imprisonment for 1 years, or fine, or both. Ditto Ditto Any Magistrate.
487. Fraudulently making a false mark upon any package or receptacle containing goods, with intent to cause it to be believed that it contains goods which it does not contain, etc. Imprisonment for 3 years, or fine, or both. Ditto Ditto Ditto
488. Making use of any such false mark. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
489. Removing, destroying or defacing property mark with intent to cause injury. Imprisonment for 1 year, or fine, or both. Ditto Ditto Ditto
489-A. Counterfeiting currency, notes or bank notes. Imprisonment for life, or imprisonment for 10 years, and fine. Cognisable Non-bailable Court of Session.
489-B. Using as genuine forged or counterfeit currency notes or bank notes. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto
489-C. Possession of forged or counterfeit currency notes or bank notes. Imprisonment for 7 years, or fine, or both. Cognisable Bailable Ditto
489-D. Making or possessing machinery, instrument or material for forging or counterfeiting currency notes or bank notes. Imprisonment for life, or imprisonment for 10 years, and fine. Ditto Non-bailable Ditto
489-E. Making or using documents resembling currency notes or bank notes. Fine of 100 rupees. Non-Cognisable Bailable Any Magistrate.
490 On refusal to disclose the name & address of the printer. Fine of 200 rupees. Ditto Ditto Ditto

CHAPTER XIX

Criminal Breach of Contracts of Service

491. Being bound to attend on or supply the wants of a person who is helpless from youth, unsoundness of mind or disease, and voluntarily omitting to do so. Imprisonment for 3 months, or fine of 200 rupees, or both. Non-Cognisable Bailable Any Magistrate.

CHAPTER XX

Offences Relating to Marriage

493. A man by deceit causing a woman not lawfully married to him to believe that she is lawfully married to him and to cohabit with him in that belief. Imprisonment for 10 years and fine. Non-Cognisable Non-bailable Magistrate of the first class.
494. Marrying again during the lifetime of a husband or wife. Imprisonment for 7 years and fine. Ditto Bailable Ditto

State Amendment – [Andhra Pradesh]– In its application to the State of Andhra Pradesh, in the entries relating to sections 494, in column 4, for the words “Non-Cognisable”, the word “Cognisable” and in the column 5, for the word “Bailable”, the words “Non-bailable” shall respectively be substituted – Andhra Pradesh Act 3 of 1992, section 2 (w.e.f. 15.2.1992).

495. Same offence with concealment of the former marriage from the person with whom subsequent marriage is contracted. Imprisonment for 10 years, and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto

State Amendment – [Andhra Pradesh]– In its application to the State of Andhra Pradesh, in the entries relating to sections 495, in column 4, for the words “Non-Cognisable”, the word “Cognisable” and in the column 5, for the word “Bailable”, the words “Non-bailable” shall respectively be substituted – Andhra Pradesh Act 3 of 1992, section 2 (w.e.f. 15.2.1992).

496. A person with fraudulent intention going through the ceremony of being married, knowing that he is not thereby lawfully married. Imprisonment for 7 years, and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto

State Amendment – [Andhra Pradesh]– In its application to the State of Andhra Pradesh, in the entries relating to sections 496, in column 4, for the words “Non-Cognisable”, the word “Cognisable” and in the column 5, for the word “Bailable”, the words “Non-bailable” shall respectively be substituted – Andhra Pradesh Act 3 of 1992, section 2 (w.e.f. 15.2.1992).

497. Adultery. Imprisonment for 5 years, or fine, or both. Ditto Ditto Ditto
498. Enticing or taking away or detaining with a criminal intent a married woman. Imprisonment for 2 years, or fine or both. Ditto Ditto Any Magistrate.

[CHAPTER XX-A]

Of Cruelty by husband or relatives of husband

498-A. Punishment for subjecting a married woman to cruelty. Imprisonment for three years and fine. Cognisable if information relating to the commission of the offence is given to an officer in charge of a police station by the person aggrieved by the offence or by any person related to her by blood, marriage or adoption or if there is no such frelative by any public servant belonging to such class or catgory as may be notified by the State Government in this behalf. Non-bailable. Magistrate of the first class.

CHAPTER XXI

Defamation

500. Defamation against the President or the Vice,President or the Governor of a State or Administrator of a Union territory or a Minister in respect of his conduct in the discharge of his public functions when instituted upon a complaint made by the Public Prosecutor. Simple imprisonment for 2 years, or fine, or both. Non-Cognisable Bailable Court of Session.
  Defamation in any other case. Ditto Ditto Ditto Magistrate of the first class.
501. (a) Printing or engraving matter knowing it to be defamatory against the President or the Vice-President or the Governor of a State or Administrator of a Union territory or a Minister in respect of his conduct in the discharge of his public functions when instituted upon a complaint made by the Public Prosecutor. Ditto Ditto Ditto Court of Session.
  (b) Printing or engraving matter knowing it to be defamatory, in any other case. Ditto Ditto Ditto Magistrate of the first class.
502. (a) Sale of printed or engraved substance containing defamatory matter knowing it to contain such matter against the President or the Vice President or the Governor of a State or Administrator of a Union territory or a Minister in respect of his conduct in the discharge of his public functions when instituted upon a complaint made by the Public Prosecutor. Ditto Ditto Ditto Court of Session.
  (b) Sale of printed or engraved substance containing defamatory matter, knowing it to contain such matter in any other case. Simple imprisonment for 2 years, or fine, or both Non-Cognisable Bailable Magistrate of the first class.

CHAPTER XXII

Criminal Intimidation,, Insult and Annoyance

504. Insult intended to provoke breach of the peace. Imprisonment for 2 years, or fine, or both. Non-Cognisable Bailable Any Magistrate
505. False statement, rumour, etc., circulated with intent to cause mutiny or offence against the public peace. Imprisonment for 3 years, or fine, of both. Non-Cognisable Non-bailable Any Magistrate
  False statement, rumour, etc.with intent to create enmity, hatred or ill,will between different classes. Ditto Cognisable Ditto Ditto
  False statement, rumour, etc., made in place of worship, etc., with intent to create enmity, hatred or ill,will. Imprisonment for 5 years, and fine. Ditto Ditto Ditto
506. Criminal intimidiation. Imprisonment for 2 years, or fine or both. Non,Cognisable Bailable Ditto
  If threat be to cause death or grievous hurt, etc. Imprisonment for 7 years, or fine, or both Ditto Ditto Magistrate of the first class.

State Amendment – [Andhra Pradesh]– In Andhra Pradesh the offences under section 506 are Non-bailable.- A.P.G.O.Ms. No. 732, dated 5.12.1991.

[Uttar Pradesh] – “Any offence punishable under section 506, I.P.Code, when committed in any district of Uttar Pradesh, shall be notwithstanding anything contained in the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, Cognisable and Non-bailable.” – Noti No. 777/VIII 9-4(2)-87, dated 31.8.1989, published in U.P. Gazette, Ext., Pt.4, section (Kha), dated 2.8.1989.

507. Criminal intimidation by anonymous communication or having taken precaution to conceal whence the threat comes. Imprisonment for 2 years, in addition to the punishment under above section. Ditto Ditto Ditto

State Amendment – [Andhra Pradesh] – In Andhra Pradesh the offences under section 507 is Cognisable.- A.P.G.O.Ms. No. 732, dated 5.12.1991.

508. Act caused by inducing a person to believe that he will be rendered an object of Divine displeasure. Imprisonment for 1 year, or fine, or both. Ditto Ditto Any Magistrate.
509. Uttering any word or making any gesture intended to insult the modesty of a woman, etc. Simple imprisonment for 3 years and with fine Cognisable Ditto Ditto
510. Appearing in a public place, etc., in a state of intoxication and causing annoyance to any person. Simple imprisonment for 24 hours, or fine of 10 rupees or both. Non,Cognisable Bailable Any Magistrate.

CHAPTER XXIII

Attempts to Commit Offences

511. Attempting to commit offences punishable with imprisonment for life or imprisonment, and in such attempt doing any act towards the commission of the offence. Imprisonment for life or imprisonment not exceeding half of the longest term, provided for the offence, or fine, or both. According as the offence is Cognisable or non-Cognisable According as the offence attempted by the offender is bailable or not. The Court by which the offence attempted is triable.

II – CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCES AGAINST OTHER LAWS

Offence Cognisable or Non-Cognisable Bailable or Non-bailable By what court triable
If punishable with death, imprisonment for life, or imprisonment for more than 7 years. Cognisable Non-bailable Court of Session
If punishable with imprisonment for 3 years and upwards but not more than 7 years. Ditto Ditto Magistrate of the first class
If punishable with imprisonment for less than 3 years or with fine only. Non-Cognisable Bailable Any Magistrate

Amendment Act, 2005 – Entries relating to sections 153-AA, 174-A and 229-A to be inserted in the Indian Penal Code, as indicated in clause 54 have to be incorporated in the First Schedule to the Code. The amendments are consequential.

The Offence under Section 324 of the Indian Penal Code, i.e., voluntarily causing hurt by dangerous weapons or means is at present bailable. Since the offences is immediately released on bail, the chances of recovering the weapon of offence are remote; therefore, the First Schedule appended to the Code, is being amended to classify the offence as non-bailable

The offences under sections 274 (adulteration of drugs), 332 (voluntarily causing hurt to deter public servant from his duty) and 353 (assault of criminal force to deter public servant from discharging his duty) of the Indian Penal Code are at the present bailable. In order to deal with theses offences effectively, the First Schedule to the Code is being amended to classify offences under Sections 274, 332 and 353 of the Indian Penal Code as non-bailable. (Notes on Clauses).

State Amendment – MAHARASHTRA.– In the First Schedule to the Code of Criminal Procedure, under the heading “I. – OFFENCES UNDER THE INDIAN PENAL CODE”, –

(i) for the entry relating to section 332, the following entry shall be substituted, namely:-

332. Voluntarily causing hurt to deter public servant from his duty. Imprisonment for 5 years , or fine, or both. Cognizable Non-bailable. Court of Session.

(ii) for the entry relating to section 353, the following entry shall substituted, namely;-

   
353. Assault or use of criminal force to deter a public servanct from discharge of his duty. Imprisonment for 5 years , or fine, or both. Cognizable Non-bailable. Court of Session.

The Second Schedule

(See Section 476)

FORM NO.1

SUMMONS TO AN ACCUSED PERSON

[See Section 61]

To ________ (name of accused) of_________ (address)

Whereas your attendance is necessary to answer to a charge of (State shortly the offence charged), you are hereby required to appear in person (or by pleader, as the case may be) before the (Magistrate) of ________________, on the _________________ day of _____________Herein fail not.

Dated, this _________day of ____________, 20_______

(Seal of the Court)

(Signature)

FORM NO.2

WARRANT OF ARREST

[See Section 70]

To ________ (name and designation of the person or persons who is or are to execute the warrant).

Whereas (name of accused) of (address) stands charged with the offence of (state the offence), you are hereby directed to arrest the said ___________ and to produce him before me. Herein fail not.

Dated, this ________day of ____________, 20_____________

(Seal of Court)

(Signature)

[See section 71]

This warrant may, be endorsed as follows :-

If the said _____shall give bail himself in the sum of rupees ___________with one surety in the sum of rupees ________(or two sureties each in the sum of rupees ________) to attend before me on the ________day of _______and to continue so to attend until otherwise directed by me, he may be released.

Dated, this ______ day of _____________, 20_______

(Seal of Court)

(Signature)

FORM NO.3

BOND AND BAIL-BOND AFTER ARREST UNDER A WARRANT

[See Section 81]

I, __________ (name), of _______________, being brought before the District Magistrate of __________(or as the case may) under a warrant issued to compel my appearance to answer to the charge of _____________, do hereby bind myself to attend in the Court of ___________on the____________ day of _____________next, to answer to the said charge, and to continue so to attend until otherwise directed by the Court; and, in case of my making default herein, I bind myself to forfeit, to Government, the sum of rupees________________

Dated, this_________day of _________________, 20_________

(Signature)

I do hereby declare myself surety for the above-named_____________of _________, that he shall attend before _____________ in the Court of __________on the ___________day of ____________next, to answer to the charge on which he has been arrested, and shall continue so to attend until otherwise directed by the Court; and, in case of his making default therein, I bind myself to forfeit, to Government, the sum of rupees ____________

Dated, this _______ day of _______________, 20______

(Signature)

FORM NO.4

PROCLAMATION REQUIRING THE APPEARANCE OF A PERSON ACCUSED

[See Section 82]

Whereas complaint has been made before me that ________ (name, description and address) has committed (or is suspected to have committed) the offence of ________, punishable under section ______of the Indian Penal Code, and it has been returned to a warrant of arrest thereupon issued that the said ________ (name) cannot be found, and whereas it has been shown to my satisfaction that the said ________ (name) of absconded (or is concealing himself to avoid the service of the said warrant);

Proclamation is hereby made that the said ________ of ______________is required to appear at ________ (place) before this Court (or before me) to answer the said complaint on the ___________day of _____________, 20 ______

Dated, this _______day of _________, 20_______

(Seal of the Court)

(Signature)

FORM NO.5

PROCLAMATION REQUIRING THE ATTENDANCE OF A WITNESS

[See Section 82, 87 and 90]

Whereas complaint has been made before me that _________ (name, description and address) has committed (or is suspected to have committed) the offence of _____________ (mention the offence concisely) and a warrant has been issued to compel the attendance of _____________ (name, description and address of the witness) before this Court to be examined touching the matter of the said complaint; and whereas it has been returned to the said warrant that the said _________ (name of witness) cannot be served, and it has been shown to my satisfaction that he has absconded (or is concealing himself to avoid the service of the said warrant);

Proclamation is hereby made that the said ________ (name) is required to appear at ________ (place) before the Court of ___________on the _____________ day of _________ next at __________ o’clock, to be examined touching ___________the offence complained of.

Dated, this ____________ day of ___________, 20____

(Seal of the Court)

(Signature)

FORM NO.6

ORDER OF ATTACHMENT TO COMPEL THE ATTENDANCE OF A WITNESS

[See Section 83]

To the Officer in charge of the police station at _______________.

Whereas a warrant has been duly issued to compel the attendance of _________ (name, description and address) to testify concerning a complaint pending before this Court, and it has been returned to the said warrant that it cannot be served; and whereas it has been shown to my satisfaction that he has absconded (or is concealing himself to avoid the service of the said warrant); and thereupon a Proclamation has been or is being duly issued and published requiring the said _______________to appear and give evidence at the time and place mentioned therein;

This is to authorise and require you to attach by seizure the movable property belonging to the said ________to the value of rupees _________which you may find within the District of ___________and to hold the said property under attachment pending the further order of this Court, and to return this warrant with an endorsement certifying the manner of its execution.

Dated, this_______day of ______________, 20______________

(Seal of the Court)

(Signature)

FORM NO.7

ORDER OF ATTACHMENT TO COMPEL THE APPEARANCE OF A PERSON ACCUSED

[See Section 83]

To _______ (name and designation of the person or persons who is or are to execute the warrant).

Whereas complaint has been made before me that ________ (name, description and address) has committed (or is suspected to have committed) the offence of __________punishable under section ____________of the Indian Penal Code, and it has been returned to a warrant of arrest thereupon issued that the said _________ (name) cannot be found; and whereas it has been shown to my satisfaction that the said _________ (name) has absconded (or is concealing himself to avoid the service of the said warrant) and thereupon a Proclamation has been or is being duly issued and published requiring the said _________to appear to answer the said charge within ______ days; and whereas the said __________is possessed of the following property other than land paying revenue to Government, in the village (or town), of _______, in the District of _______ viz_____, and an order has been made for the attachment thereof;

[You are hereby required to attach the said property in the manner specified in clause (a), or clause (c), or both], of sub-section (2) of section 83, and to hold the same under attachment pending further order of this Court, and to return this warrant with an endorsement certifying the manner of its execution.]

Dated, this _________day of____________, 20____

(Seal of the Court)

(Signature)

FORM NO.8

ORDER AUTHORISING AN ATTACHMENT BY THE DISTRICT MAGISTRATE OR COLLECTOR

[See Section 83]

To the District Magistrate/Collector of the District of _____________. Whereas complaint has been made before me that _________ (name, description and address) has committed (or is suspected to have committed), the offence of ______________, punishable under section ____________of the Indian Penal Code, and it has been returned to a warrant of arrest thereupon issued that the said ________ (name) cannot be found; and whereas it has been shown to my satisfaction that the said ________ (name) has absconded (or is concealing himself to avoid the service of the said warrant) and thereupon a Proclamation has been or is being duly issued and published requiring the said _______ (name) to appear to answer the said charge within ___________days; and whereas the said __________is possessed of certain land paying revenue to Government in the village (or town) of ___________in the District of __________.

[You are hereby authorised and requested to cause the said land to be attached, in the manner specified in clause (a), or clause (c), or both] of sub-section (4) of section 83, and to be held under attachment pending the further order of this court, and to certify without delay what you may have done in pursuance of this order.

Dated, this ________________day of______________, 20__________

(Seal of the Court)

(Signature)

FORM NO.9

WARRANT IN THE FIRST INSTANCE TO BRING UP A WITNESS

[See Section 87]

To _________ (name and designation of the police officer or other person or persons who is or are to execute the warrant).

Whereas complaint has been made before me that _________ (name and description of accused) of _____________ (address) has (or is suspected to have) committed the offence of (mention the offence concisely), and it appears likely that ___________ (name and description of witness) can give evidence concerning the said complaint; and whereas I have good and sufficient reason to believe that he will not attend as a witness on the hearing of the said complaint unless compelled to do so;

This is to authorise and require you to arrest the said _________ (name of witness), and on the _____________day of_____________to bring him before this Court, to be examined touching the offence complained of.

Dated of, this _____________day of _______________, 20_______

(Seal of the Court)

(Signature)

FORM NO.10

WARRANT TO SEARCH AFTER INFORMATION OF A PARTICULAR OFFENCE

[See Section 93]

To ________ (name and designation of the police officer or other person or persons who is or are to execute the warrant).

Whereas information has been laid (or complaint has been made) before me of the commission (or suspected commission) of the offence of ____________ (mention the offence concisely), and it has been made to appear to me that the production of ____________ (specify the thing clearly) is essential to the inquiry now being made (or about to be made) into the said offence (or suspected offence);

This is to authorise and require you to search for the said _________ (the thing specified) in the ____________ (describe the house or place or part thereof to which the search is to be confined), and, if found, to produce the same forthwith before this Court, returning this warrant, with an endorsement certifying what you have done under it, immediately upon its execution.

Dated, this__________day of __________, 20__________

(Seal of the Court)

(Signature)

FORM NO.11

WARRANT TO SEARCH SUSPECTED PLACE OF DEPOSIT

[See Section 94]

To __________ (name and designation of a police officer above the rank of a constable)

Whereas information has been laid before me, and on due inquiry thereupon had, I have been led to believe that the _________ (describe the house or other place) is used as a place for the deposit (or sale) of stolen property (or if for either of the other purposes expressed in the section, state the purpose in the words of the section);

This is to authorise and require you to enter the said house _________ (or other place) with such assistance as shall be required, and to use, if necessary, reasonable force for that purpose, and to search every part of the said house (or other place or if the search is to be confined to a part, specify the part clearly), and to seize and take possession of any property (or documents, or stamps, seals, or coins, or obscene objects, as the case may be) (add, when the case requires it) and also of any instruments and materials which you may reasonably believe to be kept for the manufacture of forged documents, or counterfeit stamps, or false seals, or counterfeit coins or counterfeit currency notes (as the case may be), and forthwith to bring before this Court such of the said things as may be taken possession of, returning this warrant, with an endorsement certifying what you have done under it, immediately upon its execution.

Dated, this _________________day of____________, 20_____

(Seal of the Court)

(Signature)

FORM NO.12

BOND TO KEEP THE PEACE

[See Sections 106 and 107]

Whereas, I _________ (name) inhabitant of __________ (place), have been called upon to enter into a bond to keep the peace for the term of ___________or until the completion of the inquiry in the matter of ____________now pending in the Court of _________, I hereby bind myself not to commit a breach of the peace, or do any act that may probably occasion a breach of the peace, during the said term or until the completion of the said inquiry and, in case of my making default therein, I hereby bind myself to forfeit to Government the sum of rupees _______.

Dated, this _________day of ______________, 20_______

(Signature)

FORM NO.13

BOND FOR GOOD BEHAVIOUR

[See Sections 108, 109 and 110]

Whereas I, _________ (name), inhabitant in ________ (place), have been called upon to enter into a bond to be of good behaviour to Government and all the citizens of India for the term of (state the period) or until the completion of the inquiry in the matter of ____________now pending in the Court of ___________, I hereby bind myself to be of good behaviour to Government and all the citizens of India during the said term or until the completion of the said inquiry; and, in case of my making default therein, I hereby bind myself to forfeit to Government the sum of rupees _________.

Dated, this _____________day of ______________, 20________

(Signature)

(Where a bond with sureties is to be executed, add _______)

We do hereby declare ourselves sureties for the above-named _____________that he will be of good behaviour to Government and all the citizens of India during the said term or until the completion of the said inquiry; and in case of his making default therein, we bind ourselves, jointly and severally, to forfeit to Government the sum of rupees______.

Dated, this _______________day of ______, 20__________

(Signature)

FORM NO.14

SUMMONS ON INFORMATION OF A PROBABLE BREACH OF THE PEACE

[See Section 113]

To _____________________________of__________________________________

Whereas it has been made to appear to me by credible information that ____________ (state the substance of information), and that you are likely to commit a breach of the peace (or by which act a breach of the peace will probably be occasioned), you are hereby required to attend in person (or by a duly authorised agent) at the office of the Magistrate of ____________on the ___________day of ______________ 20_____, at ten o’clock in the forenoon, to show cause why you should not be required to enter into a bond for rupees ______________ [when sureties are required, add, and also to give security by the bond of one (or two, as the case may be) surety (or sureties) in the sum of rupees ________(each if more than one)] that you will keep the peace for the term of ___________.

Dated, this ________day of______, 20______

(Seal of the Court)

(Signature)

FORM NO.15

WARRANT OF COMMITMENT ON FAILURE TO FIND SECURITY TO KEEP THE PEACE

[See Section 122]

To the Officer in charge of the Jail at ___________________________________

Whereas _________ (name and address) appeared before me in person (or by his authorised agent) on the _________day of ________in obedience to a summons calling upon him to show cause why he should not enter into a bond for rupees _________with one surety (or a bond with two sureties each in rupees_________________), that he, the said (name), would keep the peace for the period of _________________ months; and whereas an order was then made requiring the said ________ (name) to enter into and find such security (state the security ordered when it differs from that mentioned in the summons), ____________ and he has failed to comply with the said order;

This is to authorise and require you to receive the said _________ (name) into your custody, together with this warrant, and him safely to keep in the said Jail for the said period of ___________ (term of imprisonment) unless he shall in the meantime be lawfully ordered to be released, and to return this warrant with an endorsement certifying the manner of its execution.

Dated, this ___________day of __________, 20___________

(Seal of the Court)

(Signature)

FORM NO.16

WARRANT OF COMMITMENT ON FAILURE TO FIND SECURITY FOR GOOD BEHAVIOUR

[See Section 122]

To the Officer in charge of the Jail at ___________________________

Whereas it has been made to appear to me that ______________ (name and description) has been concealing his presence within the district of _______________and that there is reason to believe that he is doing so with a view to committing a Cognisable offence;

OR

Whereas evidence of the general character of ____________ (name and description) has been adduced before me and recorded, from which it appears that he is an habitual robber (or house-breaker, etc., as the case may be);

And whereas an order has been recorded stating the same and requiring the said ___________ (name) to furnish security for his good behaviour for the term of __________ (state the period) by entering into a bond with one surety (or two or more sureties, as the case may be), himself for rupees ______________and the said surety (or each of the said sureties) for rupees _______ ________, and the said ____________ (name) has failed to comply with the said order and for such default has been adjudged imprisonment for __________ (state the term) unless the said security be sooner furnished;

This is to authorise and require you to receive the said (name) into you custody, together with this warrant and him safely to keep in the Jail, or if he is already in prison, be detained therein, for the said period of (term of imprisonment) unless he shall in the meantime be lawfully ordered to be released, and to return this warrant with an endorsement certifying the manner of its execution.

Dated, this ____________day of ________________, 20_______

(Seal of the Court)

(Signature)

FORM NO.17

WARRANT TO DISCHARGE A PERSON IMPRISONED ON FAILURE TO GIVE SECURITY

[See Sections 122 and 123]

To the Officer in charge of the Jail at ________(or other officer in whose custody the person is).

Whereas (name and description of prisoner) was committed to your custody under warrant of the Court, dated the _________day of _______ 20_______;

and has since duly given security under section _______________of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973;

Or

Whereas _________ (name and description of prisoner) was committed to your custody under warrant of the Court, dated the _________day of ________ 20_________; and there have appeared to me sufficient grounds for the opinion that he can be released without hazard to the community;

This is to authorise and require you forthwith to discharge the said _________ (name) from your custody unless he is liable to be detained for some other cause.

Dated, this _______day of _____________, 20______

(Seal of the Court)

(Signature)

FORM NO.18

WARRANT OF IMPRISONMENT ON FAILURE TO PAY MAINTENANCE

[See Section 125]

To the Officer in charge of the Jail at ________________________________

Whereas _________ (name, description and address) had been proved before me to be possessed of sufficient means to maintain his wife __________ (name) [or his child __________ (name) or his father or mother _________ (name), who is by reason of ___________ (state the reason) unable to maintain herself __________ (or himself)] and to have neglected (or refused) to do so, and an order has been duly made requiring the said _________ (name) to allow to his said wife (or child or father or mother) for maintenance the monthly sum of rupees____________; and whereas it has been further proved that the said __________ (name) in wilful disregard of the said order has failed to pay rupees ________; being the amount of the allowance for the month (or months) of ______________;

And thereupon an order was made adjudging him to undergo imprisonment in the said Jail for the period of _________;

This is to authorise and require you to receive the said __________ (name) into your custody in the said Jail, together with this warrant, and there carry the said order into execution according to law, returning this warrant with an endorsement certifying the manner of its execution.

Dated, this ____________day of ______________, 20________________

(Seal of the Court)

(Signature)

FORM NO.19

WARRANT TO ENFORCE THE PAYMENT OF MAINTENANCE BY ATTACHMENT AND SALE

[See Section 125]

To __________ (name and designation of the police officer or other person to execute the warrant).

Whereas an order has been duly made requiring __________ (name) to allow to his said wife (or child or father or mother) for maintenance the monthly sum of rupees ____ and whereas the said ________ (name) in wilful disregard of the said order has failed to pay rupees ____________, being the amount of the allowance for the month (or months) of _______________;

This is to authorise and require you to attach any movable property belonging to the said _________ (name) which may be found within the district of ___________, and if within __________ (state the number of days or hours allowed) next after such attachment the said sum shall not be paid (or forthwith), to sell the movable property attached, or so much thereof as shall be sufficient to satisfy the said sum, returning this warrant, with an endorsement certifying what you have done under it, immediately upon its execution.

Dated, this _________________day of _________________, 20_______

(Seal of the Court)

(Signature)

FORM NO.20

ORDER FOR THE REMOVAL OF NUISANCES

[See Section 133]

To _________ (name, description and address).

Whereas it has been made to appear to me that you have caused an obstruction (or nuisance) to persons using the public roadway __________ (or other public place) which, etc. __________ (describe the road or public place) by, etc. __________ (state what it is that causes the obstruction or nuisance), and that such obstruction (or nuisance) still exists;

or

Whereas it has been made to appear to me that you are carrying on, as owner, or manager, the trade or occupation of _________ (state the particular trade or occupation and the place where it is carried on), and that the same is injurious to the public health (or comfort) by reason ___________ (state briefly in what manner the injurious effects are caused), and should be suppressed or removed to a different place;

or

Whereas it has been made to appear to me that you are the owner (or are in possession of or have the control over) a certain tank (or well or excavation) adjacent to the public way _________ (describe the thoroughfare), and that the safety of the public is endangered by reason of the said tank (or well or excavation) being without a fence (or insecurely fenced);

or

Whereas etc., etc., (as the case may be);

I do hereby direct and require you within ________ (state the time allowed) ___________ (state what is required to be done to abate the nuisance) or to appear at ___________in the Court of _____on the ______day of ________next, and to show cause why this order should not be enforced;

or

I do hereby direct and require you within ___________ (state the time allowed) to cease carrying on the said trade or occupation at the said place, and not again to carry on the same, or to remove the said trade from the place where it is now carried on, or to appear, etc.;

or

I do hereby direct and require you within _________ (state the time allowed) to put up a sufficient fence _________ (state the kind of fence and the part to be fenced); or to appear, etc.;

or

I do hereby direct and require you, etc., etc., (as the case may be).

Dated, this____________________day of _____________, 20 _______

(Seal of the Court)

(Signature)

FORM NO.21

MAGISTRATES NOTICE AND PREEMPTORY ORDER

[See Section 141]

To _________ (name, description and address).

I hereby give you notice that it has been found that the order issued on the _____________day of ________ requiring you _________ (state substantially the requisition in the order) is reasonable and proper. Such order has been made absolute, and I hereby direct and require you to obey the said order within _________ (state the time allowed), on peril of the penalty provided by the Indian Penal Code for disobedience thereto.

Dated, this _____________day of__________, 20____________

(Seal of the Court)

(Signature)

FORM NO.22

INJUNCTION TO PROVIDE AGAINST IMMINENT DANGER PENDING INQUIRY

[See Section 142]

To _________ (name, description and address).

Whereas the inquiry into the conditional order issued by me on the _________day of _____________, 20_________, is pending, and it has been made to appear to me that the nuisance mentioned in the said order is attended with such imminent danger or injury of a serious kind to the public as to render necessary immediate measures to prevent such danger or inquiry, I do hereby, under the provisions of section 142 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, direct and enjoin you forthwith to __________ (state plainly what is required to be done as a temporary safeguard), pending the result of the inquiry.

Dated, this _____________day of _________________, 20_______

(Seal of the Court)

(Signature)

FORM NO.23

MAGISTRATE’S ORDER PROHIBITING THE REPETITION, ETC., OF A NUISANCE

[See Section 143]

To _________ (name, description and address).

Whereas it has been made to appear to me that, etc. _________ (state the proper recital guided by Form No. 20 or Form No. 24, as the case may be);

I do hereby strictly order and enjoin you not to repeat or continue, the said nuisance.

Dated, this _____________day of ___________, 20___________

(Seal of the Court)

(Signature)

FORM NO.24

MAGISTRATES’S ORDER TO PREVENT OBSTRUCTION, RIOT, ETC.

[See Section 144]

To _________ (name, description and address).

Whereas it has been made to appear to me that you are in possession (or have the management) of (describe clearly the property) and that, in digging a drain on the said land, you are about to throw or place a portion of the earth and stones dug-up upon the adjoining public road, so as to occasion risk of obstruction to persons using the road;

or

Whereas it has been made to appear to me that you and a number of other persons __________ (mention the class of persons) are about to meet and proceed in a procession along the public street, etc., (as the case may be) and that such procession is likely to lead to a riot or an affray;

or

Whereas, etc., etc., (as the case may be);

I do hereby order you not to place or permit to be placed any of the earth or stones dug from land on any part of the said road;

or

I do hereby prohibit the procession passing along the said street, and strictly warn and enjoin you not to take any part in such procession (or as the case recited may require).

Dated, this ________________day of ______________, 20________

(Seal of the Court)

(Signature)

FORM NO.25

MAGISTRATE’S ORDER DECLARING PARTY ENTITLED TO RETAIN POSSESSION OF LAND, ETC., IN DISPUTE

[See Section 145]

It appears to me, on the grounds duly recorded, that a dispute, likely to induce a breach of the peace, existed between __________ (describe the parties by name and residence, or residence only if the dispute be between bodies of villagers) concerning certain ___________ (state concisely the subject of dispute), situate within my local jurisdiction, all the said parties were called upon to give in a written statement of their respective claims as to the fact of actual possession of the said ___________ (the subject of dispute), and being satisfied by due inquiry had thereupon, without reference to the merits of the claim of either of the said parties to the legal right of possession, that the claim of actual possession by the said ___________ (name or names or description) is true; I do decide and declare that he is (or they are) in possession of the said ____________ (the subject of dispute) and entitled to retain such possession until ousted by due course of law and do strictly forbid any disturbance of his (or their) possession in the meantime.

Dated, this___________day of ________________, 20_____

(Seal of the Court)

(Signature)

FORM NO.26

WARRANT OF ATTACHMENT IN THE CASE OF A DISPUTE AD TO THE POSSESSION OF LAND, ETC.

[See Section 146]

To the Officer in charge of the police station at ________________ (or, To the Collector of ______).

Whereas it has been made to appear to me that a dispute likely to induce a breach of the peace existed between __________ (describe the parties concerned by name and residence, or residence only if the dispute be between bodies of villagers) concerning certain ____________ (state concisely the subject of dispute) situate within the limits of my jurisdiction, and the said parties were thereupon duly called upon to state in writing their respective claims as to the fact of actual possession of the said ____________ (the subject of dispute), and whereas, upon the due inquiry into the said claims, I have decided that neither of the said parties was in possession of the said ____________ (the subject of dispute) (or I am unable to satisfy myself as to which of the said parties was in possession as aforesaid);

This is to authorise and require you to attach the said __________ (the subject of dispute) by taking and keeping possession thereof, and to hold the same under attachment until the decree or order of a competent Court determining the rights of the parties, or the claim to possession, shall have been obtained, and to return this warrant with an endorsement certifying the manner of its execution.

Dated, this____________________day of________, 20______

(Seal of the Court)

(Signature)

FORM NO.27

MAGISTRATE’S ORDER PROHIBITING THE DOING OF ANYTHING ON LAND OR WATER

[See Section 147]

A dispute having arisen concerning the right of use of________ (state concisely the subject of dispute) situate within my local jurisdiction, the possession of which land (or water) is claimed exclusively by _________ (describe the person or persons), and it appears to me, on due inquiry into the same, that the said land (or water) has been open to the enjoyment of such use by the public (or if by an individual or a class of persons, describe him or them) and (if the use can be enjoyed throughout the year) that the said use has been enjoyed within three months of the institution of the said inquiry (or if the use is enjoyable only at a particular season, say, “during the last of the seasons at which the same is capable of being enjoyed”);

I do order that the said __________ (the claimant or claimants of possession) or any one in their interest, shall not take (or retain) possession of the said land (or water) to the exclusion of the enjoyment of the right of use aforesaid, until he (or they) shall obtain the decree or order of a competent Court adjudging him (or them) to be entitled to exclusive possession.Dated, this ______________day of_________, 20__________

(Seal of the Court)

(Signature)

FORM NO.28

BOND AND BAIL-BOND ON A PRELIMINARY INQUIRY BEFORE A POLICE OFFICER

[See Section 169]

I, _________ (name), of ________________; being charged with the offence of ____________ and after inquiry required to appear before the Magistrate of _______ orand after inquiry called upon to enter into my own recognisance to appear when required, do hereby bind myself to appear at __________in the Court of ________, on the _____________day of_________next (or on such day as I may hereafter be required to attend) to answer further to the said charge, and in case of my making default herein, I bind myself to forfeit to Government, the sum of rupees________

Dated, this______________day of ___________________, 20________

(Signature)

I hereby declare myself (or we jointly and severally declare ourselves and each of us) surety (or sureties) for the above said _________ (name) that he shall attend at _________in the Court of _________on the _________day of _____________ next (or on such day as he may hereafter be required to attend), further to answer to the charge pending against him, and, in case of his making default therein, I hereby bind myself (or we hereby bind ourselves) to forfeit to Government the sum of rupees___________

Dated, this ________________day of ___________, 20___________

(Signature)

FORM NO.29

BOND TO PROSECUTE OR GIVE EVIDENCE

[See Section 170]

I, ________ (name), of (place)____________, do hereby bind myself to attend at_________in the Court of _______at _______o’clock on the ________day of ___________next and then and there to prosecute (or to prosecute and give evidence) (or to give evidence) in the matter of a charge of __________against one A.B., and, in case of making default herein, I bind myself to forfeit to Government the sum of rupees_________.

Dated, this_______day of_____________, 20___________

(Signature)

FORM NO.30

SPECIAL SUMMONS TO A PERSON ACCUSED OF A PETTY OFFENCE

[See Section 206]

To _____________________

(Name of the accused)

of ___________(address)

Whereas your attendance is necessary to answer a charge of a petty offence _________ (state shortly the offence charged), you are hereby required to appear in person (or by pleader) before ________(Magistrate) of ________on the ________day of _______________, 20_______, or if you desire to plead guilty to the charge without appearing before the Magistrate, to transmit before the aforesaid date the plea of guilty in writing and the sum of ______________rupees as fine, or if you desire to appear by pleader and to plead guilty through such pleader, to authorise such pleader in writing to make such a plea of guilty on your behalf and to pay the fine through such pleader. Herein fail not.

Dated, this_____________day of_________________, 20_____________

(Seal of the Court)

(Signature)

(Note :- The amount of fine specified in this summons shall not exceed one hundred rupees.)

FORM NO.31

NOTICE OF COMMITMENT BY MAGISTRATE TO PUBLIC PROSECUTOR

[See Section 209]

The Magistrate of ________________hereby gives notice that he has committed one __________for trial at the next Sessions; and the Magistrate hereby instructs the Public Prosecutor to conduct the prosecution of the said case.

The charge against the accused is that, etc. (state the offence as in the charge).

Dated, this _____________day of_____________, 20______

(Seal of the Court)

(Signature)

FORM NO.32

CHARGES

[See Sections 211, 212 and 213]

I. Charges with one head

(1)(a) I, ________ (name and office of Magistrate, etc.)_______ hereby charge you _________ (name of accused person) as follows :-

(b) On section 121. – That you, on or about the ______day of______________, at______________, waged war against the Government of India and thereby committed an offence punishable under section 121 of the Indian Penal Code, and within the cognizance of this Court.

(c) And I hereby direct that you be tried by this Court on the said Charge.

(Signature and Seal of the Magistrate)

[To be substituted for (b)] :-

(2) On section 124. – That you, on or about the ________day of________, at __________with the intention of inducing the President of India ___________ [or, as the case may be, the Governor of __________ (name of State)] to refrain from exercising a lawful power as such President (or, as the case may be, the Governor), assaulted President (or as the case may be, the Governor) and thereby committed an offence punishable under section 124 of the Indian Penal Code, and within the cognizance of this Court.

(3) On section 161. – That you, being a public servant in the _______Department, directly accepted from __________ (state the name) for another party __________ (state the name) gratification other than legal remuneration, as a motive for forbearing to do an official act, and thereby committed an offence punishable under section 161 of the Indian Penal Code, and within the cognizance of this Court.

(4) On section 166. – That you, on or about the __________day of ________, at _________, did (or omitted to do, as the case may be) ________, such conduct being contrary to the provisions of ________Act ______________, section and known by you to be prejudicial to________, and thereby committed an offence punishable under section 166 of the India Penal Code, and within the cognizance of this court.

(5) On section 193. – That you, on or about the _______day of_____, at ________, in the course of the trial of ________before _______stated in evidence that “________” which statement you either knew or believed to be false, or did not believe to be true, and thereby committed an offence punishable under section 193 of the Indian Penal Code, and within the cognizance of this Court.

(6) On section 304. – That you, on or about the __________day of________, at_______committed culpable homicide not amounting to murder, causing the death of ___________, and thereby committed an offence punishable under section 304 of the Indian Penal Code, and within the cognizance of this Court.

(7) On section 306. – That you, on or about the ______day of________, at _______, abetted the commission of suicide by A.B., a person in a state of intoxication, and thereby committed an offence punishable under section 306 of the Indian Penal Code, and within the cognizance of this Court.

(8) On section 325. – That you, on or about the ______day of______, at ______, voluntarily caused grievous hurt to ____________, and thereby committed an offence punishable under section 325 of the Indian Penal Code, and within the cognizance of this Court.

(9) On section 392. – That you, on or about the _______day of _____, at________, robbed ________ (state the name), and thereby committed an offence punishable under section 392 of the Indian Penal Code, and within the cognizance of this Court.

(10) On section 395 – That you, on or about the __________day of _______, at ___________committed dacoity, an offence punishable under section 395 of the Indian Penal Code, and within the cognizance of this court.

II. Charges with two or more heads

(1)(a) I, __________ (name, and office of Magistrate, etc.) hereby charge you _________ (name of accused person) as follows :-

(b) On section 241. – First — That you, on or about the _________ day of ________, at ____________, knowing a coin to be counterfeit, delivered the same to another person, by name, A.B., as genuine, and thereby committed an offence punishable under section 241 of the Indian Penal Code, and within the cognizance of the Court of Session.

Secondly — That you, on or about the _____day of ______, at ________, knowing a coin to be counterfeit, attempted to induce another person, by name, A.B., to receive it as genuine, and thereby committed an offence punishable under section 241 of the Indian Penal Code, and within the cognizance of the Court of Session.

(c) And I hereby direct that you be tried by the said Court on the said charge.

(Signature and Seal of the Magistrate)

[To be substituted for (b)] :-

(2) On sections 302 and 304. – First — That you, on or about the ____________day of__________, at _________, committed murder by causing the death of _________, and thereby committed an offence punishable under section 302 of the Indian Penal Code, and within the cognizance of the Court of Session.

Secondly — That you, on or about the _______day of_______, at_________, by causing the death of________________, committed culpable homicide not amounting to murder, and thereby committed an offence punishable under section 304 of the Indian Penal Code, and within the cognizance of the Court of Session.

(3) On sections 379 and 382. – First — That you, on or about the _____________day of________, at_________, committed theft, and thereby committed an offence punishable under section 379 of the Indian Penal Code, and within the cognizance of the Court of Session.

Secondly — That you, on or about the _______________day of___________, at_________, committed theft, having made preparation for causing death to a person in order to the committing of such theft, and thereby committed an offence punishable under section 382 of the Indian Penal Code, and within the cognizance of the Court of Session.

Thirdly — That you, on or about the _______________day of_____________, at__________, committed theft, having made preparation for causing restraint to a person in order to the effecting of your escape after the committing of such theft, and thereby committed an offence punishable under section 382 of the Indian Penal Code, and within the cognizance of the Court of Session.

Fourthly — That you, on or about the ______________day of ______________, at_____________, committed theft, having made preparation for causing fear of hurt to a person in order to the retaining of property taken by such theft and thereby committed an offence punishable under section 382 of the Indian Penal Code, and within the cognizance of the Court of Session.

(4) Alternative charge on section 193. – That you, on or about the_____day of_____, at_____, in the course of the inquiry into ____, before______, stated in evidence that “_______”, and that you, on or about the _____day of______, at______in the course of the trial of _____, before _______stated in the evidence that “________________”, one of which statements you either knew or believed to be false, or did not believe to be true, and thereby committed an offence punishable under section 193 of the Indian Penal Code, and within the cognizance of the Court of Session.

(In cases tried by Magistrate substitute “within my cognizance” for “within the cognizance of the Court of Session”.)

III. Charges for theft after previous conviction

I, ________ (name and office of Magistrate, etc.), hereby charge you __________ (name of accused person) as follows :-

That you, on or about the ___________day of_________, at_______, committed theft, and thereby committed an offence punishable under section 379 of the Indian Penal Code, and within the cognizance of the Court of Session (or Magistrate, as the case may be).

And you, the said __________ (name of accused), stand further charged that you, before the committing of the said offence, that is to say, on the ____________day of____________, had been convicted by the _________ (state Court by which conviction was had) at _____________of an offence punishable under Chapter XVII of the Indian Penal Code with imprisonment for a term of three years, that is to say, the offence of house-breaking by night ___________ (describe the offence in the words used in the section under which the accused was convicted), which conviction is still in full force and effect, and that you are thereby liable to enhanced punishment under section 75 of the Indian Penal Code.

And I hereby direct that you be tried, etc.

FORM NO.33

SUMMONS TO WITNESS

[See Sections 61 and 244]

To___________________________,of____________________________

Whereas complaint has been made before me that __________ (name of the accused) of (address) has (or is suspected to have) committed the offence of (state the offence concisely with time and place), and it appears to me that you are likely to give material evidence or to produce any document or other thing for the prosecution;

You are thereby summoned to appear before this Court on the ___________day of___________next at ten o’clock in the forenoon, to produce such document or thing or to testify what you know concerning the matter of the said complaint, and not to depart thence without leave of the Court; and you are hereby warned that, if you shall without just excuse neglect or refuse to appear on the said date, a warrant will be issued to compel your attendance.

Dated, this___________________day of______________, 20_____________

(Seal of the Court)

(Signature)

FORM NO.34

WARRANT OF COMMITMENT ON A SENTENCE OF IMPRISONMENT OR FINE IF PASSED BY A [COURT]

[See sections 235, 248 and 255]

To the Officer in charge of Jail at __________________________________

Whereas on the___________day of________,(name of prisoner), the (1st, 2nd, 3rd, as the case may be) prisoner in case No. _________of the Calendar for 20____, was convicted before me _________ (name and official designation) of the offence of __________ (mention the offence or offences concisely) under section __________ (or sections) of the Indian Penal Code (or of ________Act_____________), and was sentenced to __________ (state the punishment fully and distinctly);

This is to authorise and require you to receive the said _____________ (prisoner’s name) into your custody in the said Jail, together with this warrant, and thereby carry the aforesaid sentence into execution according to law.

Dated, this _________________day of_____________, 20____________

(Seal of the Court)

(Signature)

FORM NO.35

WARRNT OF IMPRISONMENT ON FAILURE TO PAY COMPENSATION

[See Section 250]

To the Officer in charge of the Jail at ______________________________

Whereas ____________ (name and description) has brought against __________ (name and description of the accused person) the complaint that __________ (mention it concisely) and the same has been dismissed on the ground that there was no reasonable ground for making the accusation against the said ________ (name) and the order of dismissal awards payment by the said _________ (name of complainant) of the sum of rupees _____________as compensation; and whereas the said sum has not been paid and an order has been made for his simple imprisonment in Jail for the period of __________ days, unless the aforesaid sum be sooner paid;

This is to authorise and require you to receive the said _________ (name) into you custody, together with this warrant, and him safely to keep in the said Jail for the period of __________ (term of imprisonment), subject to the provisions of section 69 of the Indian Penal Code, unless the said sum be sooner paid, and on the receipt thereof, forthwith to set him at liberty, returning this warrant with an endorsement certifying the manner of its execution.

Dated, this _______________day of__________, 20_____________

(Seal of the Court)

(Signature)

FORM NO.36

ORDER REQUIRING PRODUCTION IN COURT OF PERSON IN PRISON FOR ANSWERING TO CHARGE OF OFFENCE

[See Section 267]

To

The Officer in charge of the Jail at ________________________________

Whereas the attendance of ________ (name of prisoner) at present confined/detained in the above-mentioned prison, is required in this Court to answer to a charge of _________ (state shortly the offence charged) or for the purpose of a proceeding __________ (state shortly the particulars of the proceeding);

You are hereby required to produce the said _____________under safe and sure conduct before this Court _______on the __________day of______________, 20_____, by ______A.M. there to answer to the said charge, or for the purpose of the said proceeding, and after this Court has dispensed with his further attendance, cause him to be conveyed under safe and sure conduct back to the said prison.

And you are further required to inform the said _____________of the contents of this order and deliver to him the attached copy thereof.

Dated, this _______________day of ________________, 20______

(Seal of the Court)

(Signature)

(Seal) Countersigned

(Signature)

FORM NO.37

ORDER REQUIRING PRODUCTION IN COURT OF PERSON IN PRISON FOR GIVING EVIDENCE

[See Section 267]

To

The Officer in charge of the Jail at________________________________

Whereas complaint has been made before this Court that (name of the accused) of _______has committed the offence of __________(state offence concisely with time and place) and it appears that ________ (name of prisoner) at present confined/detained in the above mentioned prison, is likely to give material evidence for the prosecution/defence;

You are hereby required to produce the said ________________under safe and sure conduct before this Court at ___________on the ________day of____________, 20____, by __________________A.M. there to give evidence in the matter now pending before this Court, and after this Court has dispensed with his further attendance, cause him to be conveyed under safe and sure conduct back to the said prison.

And you are further required to inform the said __________________of the contents of this order and deliver to him the attached copy thereof.

Dated, this_____________day of_________________, 20___________

(Seal of the Court) (Signature)

(Seal) Countersigned.

(Signature)

FORM NO.38

WARRANT OF COMMITMENT IN CERTAIN CASES OF CONTEMPT WHEN A FINE IS IMPOSED

[See Section 345]

To the Officer in charge of the Jail at __________________________________

Whereas at a Court held before me on this day (name and description of the offender) in the presence (or view) of the Court committed wilful contempt;

And whereas for such contempt the said _______ (name of the offender) has been adjudged by the Court to pay a fine of rupees _________________, or in default to suffer simple imprisonment for the period of __________ (state the number of months or days);

This is to authorise and require you to receive the said _________ (name of offender) into your custody, together with this warrant, and him safely to keep in the said Jail for the said period of ________ (term of imprisonment), unless the said fine be sooner paid; and, on the receipt thereof, forthwith to set him at liberty, returning this warrant with an endorsement certifying the manner of its execution.

Dated, this __________________day of______________, 20______________

(Seal of the Court)

(Signature)

FORM NO.39

MAGISTRATE’S OR JUDGES’S WARRANT OF COMMITMENT OF WITNESS REFUSING TO ANSWER OR TO PRODUCE DOCUMENT

[See Section 349]

To ___________ (name and designation of officer of Court)

Whereas ____________ (name and description), being summoned (or brought before this Court) as a witness and this day required to give evidence on an inquiry into an alleged offence, refused to answer a certain question (or certain questions) put to him touching the said alleged offence, and duly recorded, or having been called upon to produce any document has refused to produce such document, without, alleging any just excuse for such refusal, and for his refusal has been ordered to be detained in custody for ____________ (term of detention adjudged);

This is to authorise and require you to take the said ________ (name) into custody, and him safely to keep in your custody for the period of _________________days, unless in the meantime he shall consent to be examined and to answer the questions asked of him, or to produce the document called for from him, and on the last of the said days, or forthwith on such consent being known, to bring him before this Court to be dealt with according to law, returning this warrant with an endorsement certifying the manner of its execution.

Dated, this __________________day of_____________, 20_____________

(Seal of the Court)

(Signature)

FORM NO.40

WARRANT OF COMMITMENT UNDER SENTENCE OF DEATH

[See Section 366]

To the Officer in charge of Jail at _________________________________

Whereas at the Session held before me on the _____________day of _______ 20__________(name of prisoner), the (1st, 2nd, 3rd as the case may be) prisoner in case No. _____________of the Calendar for 20__________at the said Session, was duly convicted of the offence of culpable homicide amounting to murder under section ______________ of the Indian Penal Code, and sentenced to death, subject to the confirmation of the said sentence by the ________Court of __________;

This is to authorise and require you to receive the said _______ (prisoner’s name) into your custody in the said Jail, together with this warrant, and him the safely to keep until you shall receive the further warrant or order of this Court carrying into effect the order of the said ________________Court.

Dated, this________________day of________________, 20_______

(Seal of the Court)

(Signature)

FORM NO 41

WARRANT AFTER A COMMUTATION OF A SENTENCE

[See Section 61]

To the Officer in charge of the Jail at ___________________________________

Whereas at a Session held on the _________day of ____________ 20_________, (name of prisoner), the (1st, 2nd, 3rd, as the case may be) prisoner in case No. _______________of the Calendar for 20_____at the said Session, was convicted of the offence of ________________punishable under section __________of the Indian Penal Code, and sentenced to ______________, and was thereupon committed to your custody; and whereas by the order of the ____________Court of ___________(a duplicate of which is hereunto annexed) the punishment adjudged by the said sentence has been commuted to the punishment of imprisonment for life;

This is to authorise and require you safely to keep the said _________ (prisoner’s name) in your custody in the said Jail, as by law is required, until he shall be delivered over by you to the proper authority and custody for the purpose of his undergoing the punishment of imprisonment for life under the said order,

or

If the mitigated sentence is one of imprisonment, say, after the words “custody in the said jail”, “and thereto carry into execution the punishment of imprisonment under the said order according to law”.

Dated, this _____________day of___________, 20________

(Seal of the Court)

(Signature)

FORM NO.42

WARRANT OF EXECUTION OF A SENTENCE OF DEATH

[See SectionS 413 and 414]

To the Officer in charge of the Jail at ______________________________

Whereas __________ (name of prisoner), the (1st 2nd, 3rd, as the case may be) prisoner in case No. _____________of the Calendar for 20________, at the Session held before me on the _____________day of ___________, 20____ has been by warrant of the Court, dated the ________day of_________, committed to your custody under sentence of death; __________and whereas the order of the High Court at ______confirming the said sentence has been received by this Court;

This is to authorise and require you to carry the said sentence into execution by causing the said _____________to be hanged by the neck until he be dead, at __________ (time and place of execution), and to return this warrant to the Court with an endorsement certifying that the sentence has been executed.

Dated, this _____________day of ______________, 20_______

(Seal of the Court)

(Signature)

FORM NO.43

WARRANT TO LEVY A FINE BY ATTACHMENT AND SALE

[See Section 421]

To __________ (name and designation of the police officer or other person or persons who is or are to execute the warrant).

Whereas _______ (name and description of the offender) was on the ____________ day of ___________, 20_____, convicted before me of the offence of _________ (mention the offence concisely), and sentenced to pay a fine of rupees ___________; and whereas the said _________ (name) although required to pay the said fine, has not paid the same or any part thereof;

This is to authorise and require you to attach any movable property belonging to the said _________ (name), which may be found within the district of ________; and, if within __________ (state the number of days or hours allowed) next after such attachment the said sum shall not be paid (or forthwith), to sell the movable property attached, or so much thereof as shall be sufficient to satisfy the said fine, returning this warrant, with an endorsement certifying what you have done under it, immediately upon its execution.

Dated, this____________day of______, 20_____

(Seal of the Court)

(Signature)

FORM NO.44

WARRANT FOR RECOVERY OF FINE

[See Section 421]

To the Collector of the district of _______________________________________

Whereas _________ (name, address and description of the offender) was on the ____________day of ________, 20_____, convicted before me of the offence of _________ (mention the offence concisely), and sentenced to pay a fine of rupees ______________; and

Whereas the said __________ (name), although required to pay the said fine, has not paid the same or any part thereof;

You are hereby authorised and requested to realise the amount of the said fine as arrears of land revenue from the movable or immovable property, or both, of the said (name) and to certify without delay what you may have done in pursuance of this order.

Dated, this _____________day of _______________, 20_____

(Seal of the Court)

(Signature)

[FORM NO.44-A]

BOND FOR APPEARANCE OF OFFENDER RELEASED PENDING REALISATION OF FINE

[See Section 424 (1) (b)]

Whereas I, ______________ (name), inhabitant of __________ (place), have been sentenced to pay a fine of rupees _______________and in default of payment thereof to undergo imprisonment for ________; and whereas the Court has been pleased to order my release on condition of my executing a bond for my appearance on the following date (or dates), namely :-

I hereby bind myself to appear before the Court of ________at________o’clock on the following date (or dates), namely :-

and, in case of making default herein, I bind myself to forfeit to Government the sum of rupees _________.

Dated, this _____________day of ________________, 20______

(Signature)]

WHERE A BOND WITH SURETIES IS TO BE EXECUTED, ADD –

We do hereby declare ourselves sureties for the above-named that he will appear before the Court of _________________on the following date (or dates), namely :

and, in case of his making default therein, we bind ourselves jointly and severally to forfeit to Government the sum of rupees__________

(Signature)

FORM NO.45

BOND AND BAIL-BOND FOR ATTENDANCE BEFORE OFFICER IN CHARGE OF POLICE STATION OR COURT

[See Sections 436, [436-A,]437, [437-A,]438(3) and 441]

]

I, __________ (name) ___________of __________(place), having been arrested or detained without warrant by the Officer in charge of_________police station (or having been brought before the Court of _________), charged with the offence of ___________, and required to give security for my attendance before such Officer or Court on condition that I shall attend such officer or Court on every day of which any investigation or trial is held with regard to such charge, and in case of my making default herein, I bind myself to forfeit to Government the sum of rupees _______

Dated, this _____________day of __________, 20______

(Signature)

I hereby declare myself (or we jointly and severally declare ourselves and each of us) surety (or sureties) for the above said _________(name) that he shall attend the Officer in charge of __________police station or the Court of _________on every day on which any investigation into the charge is made or any trial on such charge is held, that he shall be, and appear, before such officer or Court for the purposes of such investigation or to answer the charge against him (as the case may be), and, in case of his making default herein, I hereby bind myself (or we, hereby bind ourselves) to forfeit to Government the sum of rupees _________________

Dated, this ___________________day of________________, 20___________

(Signature)

FORM NO.46

WARRANT TO DISCHARGE A PERSON IMPRISONED ON FAILURE TO GIVE SECURITY

[See Section 442]

To the Officer in charge of the Jail at _____________________________

(or other officer in whose custody the person is)

Whereas __________ (name and description of prisoner) was committed to your custody under warrant of this Court, dated the _________day of_________, and has since with his surety (or sureties) duly executed a bond under section 441 of the Code of Criminal Procedure;

This is to authorise and require you forthwith to discharge the said ________ (name) from your custody, unless he is liable to be detained for some other matter.

Dated, this________________day of______________, 20_____

(Seal of the Court)

(Signature)

[FORM NO.47]

WARRANT OF ATTACHMENT TO ENFORCE A BOND

[See Section 446]

To the Police Officer in charge of the police station at ______________________

Whereas ________ (name, description and address of person) has failed to appear on _________ (mention the occasion) pursuant to his recognisance, and has by default forfeited to Government sum of rupees ____________ (the penalty in the bond); and whereas the said (name of person) has, on the due notice to him, failed to pay the said sum or show any sufficient cause why payment should not be enforced against him.

This is to authorise and require you to attach any movable property of the said (name) that you may find within the district of _______________, by seizure and detention, and, if the said amount be not paid within ___________days, to sell the property so attached or so much of it as may be sufficient to realise the amount aforesaid, and to make return of what you have done under this warrant immediately upon its execution.

Dated, this ____________________day of ____________, 20____

(Seal of the Court)

(Signature)

FORM NO.48

NOTICE TO SURETY ON BREACH OF A BOND

[See Section 446]

To _______________________of_________________________________

Whereas ________ on the _________________day of ___________, 20______, you became surety for ________ (name) of ___________ (place) that he should appear before this Court on the __________day of_________ and bound yourself in default thereof to forfeit the sum of Rs. _____________ to Government; and whereas the said _________ (name) has failed to appear before this court and by reason of such default you have forfeited the aforesaid sum of rupees_______;

You are hereby required to pay the said penalty or show cause, within_____ days from this date, why payment of the said sum should not be enforced against you.

Dated, this ________________ day of ___________________, 20 _______

(Seal of the Court)

(Signature)

FORM NO.49

NOTICE TO SURETY OF FORFEITURE OF BOND FOR GOOD BEHAVIOUR

[See Section 446]

To _________________________________ of _______________________

Whereas on the __________day of _________, 20_________, you became surety by a bond for _________ (name) of _________ (place) that he would be of good behaviour for the period of ___________and bound yourself in default thereof to forfeit the sum of rupees _________to Government; and whereas the said _________ (name) has been convicted of the offence of __________(mention the offence concisely) committed since you became such surety, whereby your security bond has become forfeited;

You are hereby required to pay the said penalty of rupees ______________or to show cause within ______________days why it should not be paid.

Dated, this __________________day of___________, 20_________

(Seal of the Court)

(Signature)

FORM NO.50

WARRANT OF ATTACHMENT AGAINST A SURETY

[See Section 446]

To ______________________________ of _____________________________

Whereas ________ (name, description and address) has bound himself as surety for the appearance of ___________ (mention the condition of the bond) and the said __________ (name) has made default, and thereby forfeited to Government the sum of rupees_________________(the penalty in the bond);

This is to authorise and require you to attach any movable property of the said ___________ (name) which you may find within the district of _______________, by seizure and detention; and, if the said amount be not paid within _____________days, to sell the property so attached, or so much of it as may be sufficient to realise the amount aforesaid, and make return of what you have done under this warrant immediately upon its execution.

Dated, this ____________________day of ______________, 20______

(Seal of the Court)

(Signature)

FORM NO.51

WARRANT OF COMMITMENT OF THE SURETY OF AN ACCUSED PERSON ADMITTED TO BAIL

[See Section 446]

To the Superintendent (or Keeper) of the Civil Jail at ________________________

Whereas __________ (name and description of surety) has bound himself as a surety for the appearance of _________ (state the condition of the bond) and the said _______ (name) has therein made default whereby the penalty mentioned in the said bond has been forfeited to Government; and whereas the said _________ (name of surety) has, on due notice to him, failed to pay the said sum or show any sufficient cause why payment should not be enforced against him, and the same cannot be recovered by attachment and sale of his movable property, and an order has been made for his imprisonment in the Civil Jail for __________ (specify the period);

This is to authorise and require you, the said Superintendent (or Keeper) to receive the said _________ (name) into your custody with this warrant and to keep him safely in the said Jail for the said _________ (term of imprisonment), and to return this warrant with an endorsement certifying the manner of its execution.

Dated, this __________________day of ______________, 20________

(Seal of the Court)

(Signature)

FORM NO.52

NOTICE TO THE PRINCIPLE OF FORFEITURE OF BOND TO KEEP THE PEACE

[See Section 446]

To _____________ (name, description and address)

Whereas on the _________________day of ___________, 20_______, you entered into a bond not to commit, etc., (as in the bond), and proof of the forfeiture of the same has been given before me and duly recorded;

You are hereby called upon to pay the said penalty of rupees ____________or to show cause before me within_________days why payment of the same should not be enforced against you.

Dated, this______________________day of__________________, 20______

(Seal of the Court)

(Signature)

FORM NO.53

WARRANT TO ATTACH THE PROPERTY OF THE PRINCIPLE ON BREACH OF A BOND TO KEEP THE PEACE

[See Section 446]

To __________ (name and designation of police officer), at the police station of____________

Whereas _________ (name and description) did, on the __________________day of ___________, 20_________, enter into a bond for the sum of rupees __________ _____________, binding himself not to commit a breach of the peace, etc., (as in the bond), and proof of the forfeiture of the said bond has been given before me and duly recorded; and whereas notice has been given to the said ___________ (name) calling upon him to show cause why the said sum should not be paid, and he has failed to do so or to pay the said sum;

This is to authorise and require you to attach by seizure movable property belonging to the said __________ (name) to the value of rupees _____________, which you may find within the district of ______________________, and, if the said sum be not paid within ____________, to sell the property so attached, or so much of it as may be sufficient to realize the same; and to make return of what you have done under this warrant immediately upon its execution.

Dated, this __________________day of______________, 20______

(Seal of the Court)

(Signature)

FORM NO.54

WARRANT OF IMPRISONMENT ON BREACH OF A BOND TO KEEP THE PEACE

[See Section 466]

To the Superintendent (or Keeper) of the Civil Jail at ________________

Whereas proof has been given before me and duly recorded that (name and description) has committed a breach of the bond entered into by him to keep the peace, whereby he has forfeited to Government the sum of rupees _________; and whereas the said ___________ (name) has failed to pay the said sum or to show cause why the said sum should not be paid, although duly called upon to do so, and payment thereof cannot be enforced by attachment of his movable property, and an order has been made for the imprisonment of the said ____________ (name) in the Civil Jail for the period of _________ (term of imprisonment);

This is to authorise and require you, the said Superintendent (or Keeper) of the said Civil Jail to receive the said ____________ (name) into your custody, together with this warrant, and to keep him safely in the said Jail for the said period of __________ (term of imprisonment), and to return this warrant with an endorsement certifying the manner of its execution.

Dated, this _________________day of _______________, 20_____

(Seal of the Court)

(Signature)

FORM NO.55

WARRANT OF ATTACHMENT AND SALE ON FORFEITURE OF BOND FOR GOOD BEHAVIOUR

[See Section 466]

To the police officer in charge of the police station at ____________

Whereas ________ (name, description and address) did, on the __________day of ______, 20_____, give security by bond in the sum of rupees ____________for the good behaviour of _________ (name, etc., of the principal), and proof has been given before me and duly recorded of the commission by the said __________ (name) of the offence of ____________ whereby the said bond has been forfeited; and whereas notice has been given to the said _________ (name) calling upon him to show cause why the said sum should not be paid, and he has failed to do so or to pay the said sum;

This is to authorise and require you to attach by seizure movable property belonging to the said _________ (name) to the value of rupees_______________ which you may find within the district of _______________, and, if the said sum be not paid within _____________, to sell the property so attached, or so much of it as may be sufficient to realise the same, and to make return of what you have done under this warrant immediately upon its execution.

Dated, this ____________________day of ______________, 20_____

(Seal of the Court)

(Signature)

FORM NO.56

WARRANT OF IMPRISONMENT ON FORFEITURE OF BOND FOR GOOD BEHAVIOUR

[See Section 446]

To the Superintendent (or Keeper) of the Civil Jail at __________________

Whereas ___________ (name, description and address) did, on the day of______________, 20_____, give security by bond in the sum of rupees _______________for the good behaviour of _________ (name, etc., of the principal) and proof of the breach of the said bond has been given before me and duly recorded, whereby the said ____________ (name) has forfeited to Government the sum of rupees ________________, and whereas he has failed to pay the said sum or to show cause why the said sum should not be paid although duly called upon to do so, and payment thereof cannot be enforced by attachment of his movable property, and an order has been made for the imprisonment of the said _________ (name) in the Civil Jail for the period of ___________ (term of imprisonment);

This is to authorise and require you, the Superintendent (or Keeper), to receive the said ___________ (name) into you custody, together with this warrant, and to keep him, safely in the said Jail for the said period of _________ (term of imprisonment) returning this warrant with an endorsement certifying the manner of its execution.

Dated, this________________day of _____________________, 20______

(Seal of the Court)

(Signature)

HAMI LAW HOUSE

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