The Evidence Act On Slide Section 48 to Section 51

NEW DELHI :- 48. Opinion as to existence of right or custom, when relevant. – When the Court has to form an opinion as to the existence of any general custom or right, the opinions, as to the existence of such custom or right, of persons who would be likely to know of its existence if it existed, are relevant.

Explanation. – The expression “general custom or right” includes customs or rights common to any considerable class of persons.


The right of the villagers of a particular village to use the water of a particular well is a general right within the meaning of this section.

49. Opinions as to usages, tenets, etc., when relevant. – When the Court has to form an opinion as to – the usages and tenets of any body of men or family, the constitution and government of any religious or charitable foundation, or the meaning of words or terms used in particular districts or by particular classes of people, the opinions of persons having special means of knowledge thereon, are relevant facts.

50. Opinion on relationship, when relevant. – When the Court has to form an opinion as to the relationship of one person to another, the opinion, expressed by conduct, as to the existence of such relationship, of any person who, as a member of the family or otherwise, has special means of knowledge on the subject, is a relevant fact:

Provided that such opinion shall not be sufficient to prove a marriage in proceedings under the Indian Divorce Act (4 of 1869), or in prosecutions under sections 494, 495, 497 or 498 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860).


(a) The question is, whether A and B were married.
The fact that they were usually received and treated by their friends as husband and wife, is relevant.
(b) The question is, whether A was the legitimate son of B.
The fact that A was always treated as such by members of the family, is relevant.

51. Grounds of opinion, when relevant. – Whenever the opinion of any living person is relevant, the grounds on which such opinion is based are also relevant.


An expert may give an account of experiments performed by him for the purpose of forming his opinion.